Middlebury

Drugs and Alcohol: Policies, Laws, and Resources

(Printable PDF is located at the bottom of this page.)

 

To Members of the Middlebury College Community:

The Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1989 requires that the College annually notify all students, faculty, and staff of the following:

*Middlebury College’s standards of conduct, which prohibit the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol by students and employees on College property or in connection with any activities or programs sponsored by the College.

*A description of the College’s disciplinary sanctions that will be imposed on students and employees for the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol, up to and including expulsion or termination of employment.

*A description of applicable sanctions under federal, state, and local law for the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol.

*A description of the health risks associated with the use of illicit drugs and the abuse of alcohol.

*A description of any drug or alcohol counseling, treatment, rehabilitation, or re-entry programs that are available to employees or students.

Middlebury College’s Alcohol and Drug Policies

Middlebury College is committed to promoting individual and community health, safety, and responsibility.  We expect all students, faculty and staff to observe local, state, and federal laws governing the possession, use, and furnishing of alcoholic beverages and controlled substances, also referred to as illegal drugs. 

Middlebury College believes that alcohol and other drug-related problems affect our entire community and that each of us has a responsibility to help safeguard the community health by respecting College policy and intervening in situations of abuse. Any member of the College community having knowledge of an individual on campus who is abusing alcohol or who is in possession of or using illegal drugs is urged to encourage the individual to seek counseling and/or medical assistance. All members of the community are also expected to help protect the community health by informing appropriate College staff members of instances of illegal drug or alcohol possession, distribution and/or sales.

There may be times when safety concerns arise from a student's excessive drinking or drug use, and in these situations, students should not hesitate to seek help from the Student Life staff, Public Safety, medical or counseling professionals, and/or local or state policy out of fear of disciplinary action. Under Middlebury's Good Samaritan policy, neither the student in distress nor the student or organization seeking assistance will ordinarily be subject to disciplinary action for the possession, provision, or consumption of drugs or alcohol.

This policy refers to isolated incidents only, and does not excuse or protect those who flagrantly or repeatedly violate the Alcohol or Other Drugs Policy, nor does it preclude disciplinary action arising from violations of other College policies. However, in cases involving additional policy violations, Middlebury will consider the positive impact of reporting an incident as well as the health and safety needs of the involved student(s) when determining the appropriate course of action.

Any violation of Middlebury’s Drug and Alcohol policies may result in discipline up to and including termination of employment (in the case of employees) or suspension or expulsion (in the case of students).  Links to the full text of Middlebury’s Alcohol and Drug Policies are available below. Printed copies are also available upon request from the following offices:  Dean of Students, Commons Deans, Public Safety, and Human Resources.

Middlebury College Student Life Policies: Alcohol and Other Drugs

Middlebury College Handbook 9.3 Discharge (“Use or possession of, or being under the influence of illegal substances or alcohol while at work”)

Federal and State Laws

All students, faculty, staff, and visitors are subject to local, state and federal laws, as well as College drug and alcohol policy rules and regulations, while on College-owned or leased properties or while involved with off-campus activities sponsored by the College or a registered College organization. The College does not protect individuals from prosecution for drug or alcohol offenses under local, state, or federal laws, and does not interfere with legitimate law enforcement activities.  Law enforcement officers, when in possession of the proper documents, have a legal right to search individuals and property without prior notice. The College also reserves the right to furnish the police with information regarding alleged illegal activities.

Federal, state, and local laws pertaining to the illicit manufacture, possession, distribution and use of drugs and alcohol are summarized below. The information herein regarding Federal, state, and local drug and alcohol laws does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Please consult your attorney if you have any questions. In addition, this section is intended to be a summary of certain drug and alcohol laws only. Such laws may change from time to time; as such, you should access the statutes directly or consult your attorney to obtain the most up to date and accurate information

A.            Federal Law

Federal Penalties for Possession of Controlled Substances (21 U.S.C. § 844)

First Offense

Second Offense

Additional Offenses

Convictions Relating to Possession of Mixture/Substance Containing Cocaine Base

Convictions for Possession of Flunitrazepam

May be sentenced for up to 1 yr. in prison; shall be fined $1,000, or both.

Prison sentence between 15 days and 2 yrs. and a minimum fine of $2,500

Prison sentence between 90 days and 3 yrs. and a minimum fine of $5,000

Prison sentence between 5-20 yrs. and a minimum fine of $1,000 (depending on amount and/or prior convictions

Prison sentence of not more than 3 yrs. and fines as provided generally in the statute for first or additional offenses, or both.

Criminal Forfeitures (21 U.S.C. § 853)

Any person convicted of a federal drug crime punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year shall forfeit to the United States any personal or real property that is related to the violation. This includes real property, personal property, money, and intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, and claims.

Denial of Federal Benefits, Including Student Loans, Grants, Contracts, and Commercial and Professional Licenses (21 U.S.C. §862)

Convictions for federal or state offenses consisting of the distribution of controlled substances: Ineligible for any and all federal benefits for up to 5 years after a first conviction, up to 10 years after a second conviction, and permanent ineligibility for all federal benefits after a third or subsequent conviction.

Convictions for federal or state offenses related to possession of controlled substances: Ineligible for any and all federal benefits for up to 1 year, and/or drug treatment program and/or community service (first conviction); up to 5 years (second or subsequent conviction(s)), and or drug treatment program and/or community service.  

Federal Trafficking Penalties Schedule (See also 21 U.S.C. § 841)

         

DRUG/SCHEDULE

QUANTITY

PENALTIES

QUANTITY

PENALTIES

Cocaine (Schedule II)

500 - 4999 gms mixture

First Offense :

5 kgs or more mixture

First Offense :

   

Cocaine Base (Schedule II)

28-279 gms mixture

Not less than 5 yrs, and not more than 40 yrs. If death or serious injury, not less than 20 or more than life. Fine of not more than $5 million if an individual, $25 million if not an individual

280 gms or more mixture

Not less than 10 yrs, and not more than life. If death or serious injury, not less than 20 or more than life. Fine of not more than $10 million if an individual, $50 million if not an individual.

Fentanyl (Schedule II)

40 - 399 gms mixture

 

400 gms or more mixture

 

Fentanyl Analogue (Schedule I)

10 - 99 gms mixture

Second Offense : Not less than 10 yrs, and not more than life. If death or serious injury, life imprisonment. Fine of not more than $8 million if an individual, $50 million if not an individual

100 gms or more mixture

Second Offense : Not less than 20 yrs, and not more than life. If death or serious injury, life imprisonment. Fine of not more than $20 million if an individual, $75 million if not an individual.

Heroin (Schedule I)

100 - 999 gms mixture

 

1 kg or more mixture

 

LSD (Schedule I)

1 - 9 gms mixture

 

10 gms or more mixture

2 or More Prior Offenses: Life imprisonment

Methamphetamine (Schedule II)

5 - 49 gms pure or 50 - 499 gms mixture

 

50 gms or more pure or 500 gms or more mixture

 

PCP (Schedule II)

10 - 99 gms pure or 100 - 999 gms mixture

 

100 gm or more pure or 1 kg or more mixture

 

PENALTIES

Other Schedule I & II drugs (and any drug product containing Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid)

Any amount

First Offense : Not more than 20 yrs. If death or serious injury, not less than 20 yrs, or more than Life. Fine $1 million if an individual, $5 million if not an individual.

 

Second Offense : Not more than 30 yrs. If death or serious injury, not more than 15 yrs. Fine $2 million if an individual, $10 million if not an individual

 

 

Other Schedule III drugs

Any amount

First Offense : Not more than 10 years. If death or serious injury, not more than 15 yrs. Fine not more than $500,000 if an individual, $2.5 million if not an individual.

 

Second Offense : Not more than 20 yrs. If death or serious injury, not more than 30 yrs. Fine not more than $1.5 million if an individual, $5 million if not an individual

 

All other Schedule IV drugs

Any amount

First Offense : Not more than 5 years. Fine not more than $250,000 if an individual, $1 million if not an individual.

 

Flunitrazepam (Schedule IV)

Less than 1 gm

Second Offense : Not more than 10 yrs. Fine not more than $500,000 if an individual, $2 million if not an individual.

All Schedule V drugs

Any amount

First Offense: Not more than 1 yr. Fine not more than $100,000 if an individual, $250,000 if not an individual.

 

Second Offense : Not more than 4 yrs. Fine not more than $200,000 if an individual, $500,000 if not an individual.

         

Federal Trafficking Penalties - Marijuana

       

DRUG

QUANTITY

1st OFFENSE

2nd OFFENSE*

Marijuana (Schedule I)

1,000 kg or more mixture; or 1,000 or more plants

Not less than 10 years, not more than life

Not less than 20 years, not more than life

If death or serious injury, not less than 20 years, not more than life

If death or serious injury, mandatory life

Fine not more than $4 million if an individual, $10 million if other than an individual

Fine not more than $8 million if an individual, $20 million if other than an individual

   

Marijuana (Schedule I)

100 kg to 999 kg mixture; or 100 to 999 plants

Not less than 5 years, not more than 40 years

Not less than 10 years, not more than life

If death or serious injury, not less than 20 years, not more than life

If death or serious injury, mandatory life

Fine not more than $2 million if an individual, $5 million if other than an individual

Fine not more than $4 million if an individual, $10 million if other than an individual

   

Marijuana (Schedule I)

more than 10 kgs hashish; 50 to 99 kg mixture

Not more than 20 years

Not more than 30 years

 

If death or serious injury, not less than 20 years, not more than life

If death or serious injury, mandatory life

more than 1 kg of hashish oil; 50 to 99 plants

Fine $1 million if an individual, $5 million if other than an individual

Fine $2 million if an individual, $10 million if other than individual

     

Marijuana (Schedule I)

1 to 49 plants; less than 50 kg

Not more than 5 years

Not more than 10 years

Fine not more than $250,000, $1 million other than individual

Fine $500,000 if an individual, $2 million if other than individual

Hashish (Schedule I)

10 kg or less

   

Hashish Oil (Schedule I)

1 kg or less

   

*The minimum sentence for a violation after two or more prior convictions for a felony drug offense have become final is a mandatory term of life imprisonment without release and a fine up to $8 million if an individual and $20 million if other than an individual.

Distribution or Manufacturing in or Near Schools: (21 U.S.C. § 860)
Any person convicted of distributing, possessing with intent to distribute, or manufacturing a controlled substance in or on, or within one thousand feet of, the real property comprising a private college is subject to twice the maximum punishment (including imprisonment and fines) and at least twice any term of supervised release as the standard penalties for the same offense, with a mandatory term of imprisonment of not less than one year. These mandatory minimum sentencing provisions shall not apply to offenses involving 5 grams or less of marijuana. There are additional penalties for two or more offenses.

Full text of Controlled Substances Act
Section 812. Schedules of Controlled Substances
List of Controlled Substances

B. Vermont Law

Alcohol

Minors Misrepresenting age, Procuring, Possessing, or Consuming Liquors (7. V.S.A.§ 656 and
 7 V.S.A. § 657)
It is illegal for a person under the age of 21 to procure, possess, or consume alcohol.

First Offense

Second Offense

Civil penalties include a $300 fine and a 90 day suspension of the person’s driver’s license (unless the person successfully meets the conditions of the court diversion board, including an alcohol safety program)

Fine up to $600 or prison up to 30 days, or both; a 120 day suspension of the  person’s driver’s license; completion of an alcohol and driving program at the person’s own expense

Sale or Furnishing Alcohol to Minors or Enabling the Consumption of Alcohol by Minors (7 V.S.A. § 658)
It is illegal to sell or furnish alcohol to, or knowingly enable the consumption of alcohol by, a person under the age of 21. Fines range from $500-$2,000 or a prison term of up to 2 years, or both. Additional penalties will be imposed if the minor gets in an automobile accident that causes death or serious bodily injury to him/herself or others (prison term of up to 5 years or a fine of up to $10,000, or both).

 

Limited Immunity from Liability for Reporting a Drug or Alcohol Overdose (18 V.S.A. § 4254).

Act No. 71 (H.65).     Effective Date: June 5, 2013

An act relating to limited immunity from liability for reporting a drug or alcohol overdose

In this act, the General Assembly states its intent to encourage a witness or victim of a drug overdose to seek medical assistance in order to save the life of an overdose victim by establishing a State policy of protecting the witness or victim from prosecution and conviction for certain crimes. The act provides limited immunity from citation or arrest of prosecution for a person who, in good faith and in a timely manner, seeks medical assistance for someone who is experiencing a drug or alcohol overdose or for themselves if they are experiencing a drug or alcohol overdose.

 

Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol (23 V.S.A. § 1201)
A person shall not operate, attempt to operate, or be in actual physical control of any vehicle on a highway when the person’s alcohol concentration is 0.08 or more or when the person is under the influence of alcohol or when the person is under the combined influence of alcohol and any other drug to a degree which renders the person incapable of driving safely. 

See also 23 V.S.A. § 1202 (Consent to Taking of Tests to Determine Blood Alcohol Content)

Penalties include the following, depending on the circumstances:

First Offense

Fine up to $750 and/or prison up to 2 yrs.

See 23 V.S.A. 1206

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1206 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

Second Offense

Fine up to $1,500 and/or prison up to 2 years; 200 hrs. of community service

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

Third Offense

Fine up to $2,500 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

Possible license  suspension for life and other conditions

See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. § 1210

Fourth or Subsequent Offense

Fine up to $5,000 and/or prison up to 10 yrs.

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

DUI Offense with Death Resulting

Fine up to $10,000 and/or prison between 1-15 yrs.; separate penalties may be imposed for multiple deaths; other penalties may apply

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

DUI Offense with Death Resulting; 3rd or Subsequent Offense

Mandatory prison term of at least 5 yrs. (court has discretion to impose lesser sentence under certain conditions)

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

DUI Offense with Serious Bodily Injury Resulting

Fine up to $5,000 and/or prison up to 15 yrs. Separate penalties may be imposed for each person injured

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

DUI Offense with Serious Bodily Injury Resulting; third or subsequent offense

Mandatory prison for at least 5 yrs. Other penalties within the Court’s discretion (court has discretion to impose lesser sentence under certain conditions)

License suspension and other conditions See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. 1208 & 1209a

23 V.S.A. §1210

Other penalties include alcohol screening, alcohol and driving education (depending on the circumstances); additional penalties apply for refusal consent to blood alcohol testing. See, e.g., 23 V.S.A. §§ 1205, 1206, 1208, 1209a, 1210

Illegal Drugs

Drug

Penalty 

(Possession)

Penalty

(Delivery or Sale)

Increased Penalty

Based on Amount

Statute

Marijuana

1st offense: Fine up to $500 and/or prison up to 6 months.

Subsequent

Offense: Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 2 yrs.

Fine up to $10,000 and/or prison up to 2 yrs..

2oz or more:  Fine up to $10,000-$500,000 and/or prison up to 3-15 yrs.. Trafficking: Fine up to $1,000,000 and/or prison up to 30 yrs.

18 V.S.A. § 4230

Cocaine

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 year.

Dispensing: Fine up to $75,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $100,000 and/or prison up to 10 yrs.

2.5 grams or more:

Fines up to $100,000-$1,000,000 and/or prison up to 5-30 yrs..

Trafficking: Fine up to $1,000,000 and prison up to 30 yrs.

18 V. S. A. §4231

LSD

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 year.

Dispensing: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

100 milligrams or more: Fines up to $25,000-$500,000 and/or prison up to 5-20 yrs.

18 V.S.A. §4232

Heroin

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 year

Dispensing: Fine up to $75,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $100,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

200 milligrams or more: Fine up to $100,000-$1,000,000 and/or prison up to 20 yrs..

Trafficking: Fine up to $1,000,000 and/or prison up to 30 yrs.

18 V.S.A. §4233

Depressant, Stimulant, and Narcotic Drugs

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

Dispensing: Fine up to $75,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

100 or more times benchmark unlawful dosage:

Fine up to $25,000-$500,000 and/or prison up to 20 yrs.

18 V. S.A. §4234

Methamphetamine

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

Dispensing: Fine up to $75,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $100,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

2.5 grams or more: Fine up to $100,000-$1,000,000 and/or prison up to 20 yrs.

Trafficking: Fine up to $1,000,000 and/or prison up to 30 yrs.

18 V. S. A. §4234a

Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

 

9 or more grams: Fine up to $100,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs.

18 V. S.A. §4234b

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

Dispensing: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 5 yrs. 

10 or more doses:

Fine up to $25,000-$500,000 and/or prison up to 15 yrs.

18 V.S. A. §4235

Ecstasy

Fine up to $2,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

Dispensing: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to 3 yrs.

Selling: Fine up to $25,000 and/or prison up to

2 grams or more:

Fine of up to $25,000-$500,000 and/or prison up to 20 yrs.

 

18 V.S.A.  §4235a

Unlawful Manufacture, Distribution, Dispensing or Sale of a Noncontrolled Drug or Substance

Fine up to $5,000 and/or prison up to 1 yr.

If violation involves dispensing or sale to person under 21:

Fine up to $10,000 and/or prison up to 2 yrs.

 

 

18 V.S.A. § 4228

Manufacture or Cultivation of a Regulated Drug (other than cultivation of marijuana)

Fine up to $1,000,000 and/or prison up to 20 yrs.

 

 

18 V.S.A. § 4236

Selling or Dispensing to Minors; Selling on School Grounds

Dispensing to Minors: Prison up to 5 yrs.

Selling: Prison up to 10 yrs.

Selling or Dispensing on School Grounds: Prison of up to 10 yrs.

 

 

18 V.S.A. § 4237

Penalties for Dispensing or Selling Regulated Drugs in a Dwelling

Fine up to $1,000 and/ or prison up to 2 yrs.

 

 

18 V.S.A. § 4252

Second and Subsequent Offenses for Violating 18 V.S.A. §§ 4228, 4230, 4231, 4232, 4233, 4234, 4235, 4236 or 4237

Prison term or fine up to twice that authorized by those sections, or both.

 

 

18 V.S.A. § 4238

 C.            Local Law (Town of Middlebury Ordinance)

A person who has in his or her possession an open container containing any malt or vinous beverage, or spirits, or alcohol while on Town property without a permit specifically authorizing such possession or who violates a term or condition of permit issued under shall be subject to a fine not in excess of $1,000 this Ordinance, for each violation.

Town Property shall mean any street, highway, sidewalk, park, building, or any other place owned by, or under the authority and control of the Town within the village area as defined on map #139-Village Area of Middlebury, Vermont 1968 prepared by Hans Klunder Associates, Inc. and recorded in the Middlebury Town Clerk's Office; and also Chipman Hill Park; Means Woods, Battell Woods, Wright Park and East Middlebury Recreation Park.

Alcoholic Beverage Restrictions An Ordinance For Restricting Alcoholic Beverage Use on Town Property

Information and Resources

The use of illicit drugs and the unlawful possession and use of alcohol is wrong and potentially harmful. Abuse of alcohol and drugs can have a dramatic impact on professional, academic, and family life. We therefore encourage staff, faculty, and students experiencing difficulty with drugs or alcohol to contact one of the many resources available on or off campus. It is important that all members of our community know where help is available for those who need it. Resources and information regarding health risks and resources are available below.

Health Risks Associated with the Abuse of Alcohol and the Use of Illicit Drugs

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

There are approximately 88,000 deaths attributable to excessive alcohol use each year in the United States.1 This makes excessive alcohol use the 3rd leading lifestyle-related cause of death for the nation.2 Excessive alcohol use is responsible for 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually, or an average of about 30 years of potential life lost for each death.1 In 2006, there were more than 1.2 million emergency room visits and 2.7 million physician office visits due to excessive drinking.3 The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2006 were estimated at $223.5 billion.3

The Standard Measure of Alcohol

In the United States, a standard drink is any drink that contains 0.6 ounces (14.0 grams or 1.2 tablespoons) of pure alcohol. Generally, this amount of pure alcohol is found in

  • 12-ounces of beer (5% alcohol content).
  • 8-ounces of malt liquor (7% alcohol content).
  • 5-ounces of wine (12% alcohol content).
  • 1.5-ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol content) distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, whiskey).

Definitions of Patterns of Drinking Alcohol

Excessive drinking includes heavy drinking, binge drinking, and any drinking by pregnant women or people younger than age 21.

  • Binge drinking, the most common form of excessive alcohol consumption, is defined as consuming
    • For women, 4 or more drinks during a single occasion.
    • For men, 5 or more drinks during a single occasion.
  • Heavy drinking is defined as consuming
    • For women, 8 or more drinks per week.
    • For men, 15 or more drinks per week.

Most people who binge drink are not alcoholics or alcohol dependent.4

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation, which is defined as no more than 1 drink per day for women and no more than 2 drinks per day for men.5 However, there are some persons who should not drink any alcohol, including those who are

  • Pregnant or trying to become pregnant.
  • Taking prescription or over-the-counter medications that may cause harmful reactions when mixed with alcohol.
  • Younger than age 21.
  • Recovering from alcoholism or are unable to control the amount they drink.
  • Suffering from a medical condition that may be worsened by alcohol.
  • Driving, planning to drive, or participating in other activities requiring skill, coordination, and alertness.

 

Short-Term Health Risks

 

Excessive alcohol use has immediate effects that increase the risk of many harmful health conditions. These immediate effects are most often the result of binge drinking and include the following—

 

  • Injuries, including traffic injuries, falls, drownings, burns, and unintentional firearm injuries.6
  • Violence, including intimate partner violence and child maltreatment. About 35% of victims report that offenders are under the influence of alcohol.7 Alcohol use is also associated with 2 out of 3 incidents of intimate partner violence.7 Studies have also shown that alcohol is a leading factor in child maltreatment and neglect cases, and is the most frequent substance abused among these parents.8
  • Risky sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex with multiple partners, and increased risk of sexual assault. These behaviors can result in unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases.9, 10
  • Miscarriage and stillbirth among pregnant women, and a combination of physical and mental birth defects among children that last throughout life.11, 12
  • Alcohol poisoning, a medical emergency that results from high blood alcohol levels that suppress the central nervous system and can cause loss of consciousness, low blood pressure and body temperature, coma, respiratory depression, or death.13

Long-Term Health Risks

Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of chronic diseases, neurological impairments and social problems. These include but are not limited to—

  • Neurological problems, including dementia, stroke and neuropathy.14, 15
  • Cardiovascular problems, including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and hypertension.16
  • Psychiatric problems, including depression, anxiety, and suicide.17
  • Social problems, including unemployment, lost productivity, and family problems.18, 19
  • Cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, colon, and breast.20 In general, the risk of cancer increases with increasing amounts of alcohol.
  • Liver diseases, including—
    • Alcoholic hepatitis.
    • Cirrhosis, which is among the 15 leading causes of all deaths in the United States.21
    • Among persons with Hepatitis C virus, worsening of liver function and interference with medications used to treat this condition.22
  • Other gastrointestinal problems, including pancreatitis and gastritis.23, 24

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI). Atlanta, GA: CDC.
  2. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000JAMA 2004;291(10):1238–1245.
  3. Bouchery EE, Harwood HJ, Sacks JJ, Simon CJ, Brewer RD. Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the United States, 2006 . Am J Prev Med 2011;41:516–24.
  4. Dawson DA, Grant BF, LI T-K. Quantifying the risks associated with exceeding recommended drinking limitsAlcohol Clin Exp Res 2005;29:902–908.
  5. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In:Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Chapter 3 – Foods and Food Components to Reduce  [PDF 967 KB]. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2010, p. 30–32.
  6. Smith GS, Branas CC, Miller TR. Fatal nontraffic injuries involving alcohol: a metaanalysis.Ann of Emer Med 1999;33(6):659–668.
  7. Greenfield LA. Alcohol and Crime: An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime  [PDF 229 KB]. Report prepared for the Assistant Attorney General’s National Symposium on Alcohol Abuse and Crime. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998.
  8. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. No safe haven: children of substance-abusing parents . New York: Columbia University. 1999.
  9. Naimi TS, Lipscomb LE, Brewer RD, Colley BG. Binge drinking in the preconception period and the risk of unintended pregnancy: Implications for women and their children.Pediatrics 2003;11(5):1136–1141.
  10. Wechsler H, Davenport A, Dowdall G, Moeykens B, Castillo S. Health and behavioral consequences of binge drinking in collegeJAMA 1994;272(21):1672–1677.
  11. Kesmodel U, Wisborg K, Olsen SF, Henriksen TB, Sechler NJ. Moderate alcohol intake in pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortionAlcohol & Alcoholism 2002;37(1):87–92.
  12. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Substance Abuse and Committee on Children with Disabilities. 2000. Fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disordersPediatrics 2000;106:358–361.
  13. Sanap M, Chapman MJ. Severe ethanol poisoning: a case report and brief reviewCrit Care Resusc 2003;5(2):106–108.
  14. Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Zambon A, Arico S. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Italy. A balance in 1983 and 1996European J of Public Health 2002;12:214–223.
  15. Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, La Vecchia C. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseasesPrev Med 2004;38:613–619.
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For more information about alcohol please visit the health and wellness education site on Alcohol, including alcohol safety strategies, caffeinated alcoholic drinks, and the warning signs of alcohol poisoning.  National resources and references on alcohol include:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

College Drinking - Changing the Culture

Health Risks Associated with Drugs:
According to the United States Drug Enforcement Agency:

Individuals cannot predict the effects that a drug can have—especially if it’s the first time trying it, and even if it’s a small amount or dose. Everyone's brain and body chemistry are different. Everyone's tolerance for drugs is different. Using drugs can lead to abuse, addiction, serious health problems, and even death. Drugs that are legal—prescription and over-the counter (OTC) medications—can be just as dangerous as illegal drugs.

  • More young Americans die from drugs than suicides, firearms, or school violence;
  • The use of illicit drugs, and the non-medical use of prescription drugs, directly led to the death of 38,000 Americans in 2006, nearly as many who died in automobile accidents;
  • The only disease that affects more people than substance abuse in America today is heart disease;
  • Substance abuse is the single largest contributor to crime in the United States;
  • In the latest year measured, the direct cost of drug abuse was estimated at $52 billion, with indirect costs

 

DEA Drug Fact Sheets

 

Opium
LSD
 
 

For more information about alcohol please visit the health and wellness education site on Drugs, including the relationship between marijuana, anxiety, and depression,  and non-medical prescription drug use and medication storage safety. National resources and references on drugs include:


National Institute on Drug Abuse

United States Drug Enforcement Administration  

 

 

Resources for Care and Treatment

Parton Center for Health and Wellness - Centeno House  (students)

      Health Service: 802.443.5135

      Counseling: 802.443.5141

      Brief Alcohol Screening for College Students (BASICS): 802.443-5141

Employee Assistance Program: (1.800.828.6025) (faculty and staff)

Alcoholics Anonymous/Local AA Meetings

Vermont Drug Treatment Programs

Vermont Department of Health

Friends of Recovery-Vermont