Data analysis (i.e. statistical analysis)
There are many tools available for data analysis, so many that only a cursory overview can be given here.
What You Need
What is needed for data analysis is usually tools appropriate for analyzing the type of data you are working with. Spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel and Google spreadsheets provide functionality for basic quantitative and statistical analysis.
Common data that needs to be analyzed in courses is student grades. Many faculty use Excel to calculate grades. GradeKeeper is a tool designed specifically for this purpose.