COVID-19: Essential Information

4.2 Combined Time Off

In order to provide flexibility to employees in the use of time off, Middlebury College utilizes combined time off (CTO). CTO can be used for vacation, sick, or personal time, as well as for three floating holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day, and Labor Day).

It is not necessary to distinguish how the time is being used (i.e. vacation, sick, or personal day). Departments will establish practices for providing notice of absences from work and for scheduling time away.


Most full-time regular staff employees and benefits-eligible part-time staff employees accrue CTO, beginning in the first pay period in which the employees are paid. (See Handbook section 2.3 Basic Information about Employment at Middlebury College for definitions of regular full-time and benefits-eligible part-time.)

Faculty, temporary, seasonal, part-time employees in positions budgeted for less than 1,000 hours per year, as well as a small number of special jobs, are not eligible for CTO.


CTO accrues in hours after each biweekly payroll is run. Accrual is based on length of service, as follows:

Length of Service

Annual Accrual for 1 Full Time Equivalent

CTO Accrual for Each Hour Paid

0-2 Years

26 days/yr.

0.1 hrs.

Over 2-10 Years

31 days/yr.

0.1192 hrs.

Over 10-20 Years

36 days/yr.

0.1385 hrs.

Over 20 Years

40 days/yr.

0.1538 hrs.

CTO Maximum

The following chart outlines CTO maximum accruals.


Maximum (hours) at fiscal year end*

Staff on 8 Hrs./Day Schedules


Staff on 7.75 Hrs./Day Schedules


*The fiscal year end maximum is applied at the end of the fiscal year in June. Any CTO over the maximum will be automatically moved to SLR.

At any other time of year there is no maximum accrual.

CTO Pay-Out on Termination of Eligible Employment

Accrued, unused CTO will be paid out at 100% of the employee's current rate of pay upon termination of employment or when an employee moves to a position that is not eligible to accrue CTO. (SLR is not paid out.)

In all cases of separation, final CTO payout may be withheld until keys, ID cards, and other College property are returned to the supervisor or the Human Resources Office.


General CTO guidelines

The combination of CTO and regular worked hours each pay period should equal an employee's regular scheduled hours. Part-time employees may not enter CTO in excess of their scheduled hours. Employees not on a formal leave status must use CTO to cover absences from work unless their supervisor and/or Human Resources has granted an unpaid absence. Employees may not choose to take time unpaid.

Please refer to the Personal Leave of Absence Policy for unpaid absences in excess of a full pay period.

Non-exempt staff CTO Use

As required by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), non-exempt staff must record all work time. When non-exempt staff members use CTO they should record each hour or portion of an hour away from work as CTO.

Exempt Staff CTO Use

As per the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), exempt staff are paid on a salaried basis. This dictates that their pay does not vary with regard to the number of hours worked. Exempt staff often work in excess of their normal scheduled hours and do not receive overtime or any additional pay beyond their salary. Therefore, occasional brief absences from work of less than a day will not be deducted from the CTO banks of exempt staff with the exception of approved leaves of absence under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). CTO will be recorded in full day increments when an exempt staff member is away from work for the entire day. Exempt staff are expected to maintain regular work schedules, and deviations from these schedules requires management approval. In situations of a reduced schedule or repeated or regular absences, managers and staff should make arrangements to enter CTO to adjust for absences. The use of half days may be a useful alternative in these cases. Issues related to productivity, meeting position responsibilities and appropriate office hours are performance matters and will not be managed through CTO use.