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Harper Baldwin ’19 inspects a piece of canvas for ticks. Baldwin is part of Professor David Allen's research team on factors impacting tick populations.

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Middlebury Tick Researchers Investigate the Complex Ecological Factors Driving the Rise of Lyme Disease

July 5, 2018

MIDDLEBURY, Vt. – Weekday mornings find biology professor David Allen and his intrepid crew of student researchers out in the woods, trolling for ticks.

“I don’t love having to handle live ticks. I mean, I’m used to it,” says conservation biology major Robert Cassidy ’19, who admits that when spending hours scouring the woods for ticks, “the feeling is a lot like schadenfreude, where you’re excited when you find ticks . . . but you know it’s not good for anyone if you find a lot of ticks.”

2018 marks the third summer of Allen’s continuing study of the ecology of Lyme disease. A forest ecologist with a deep grounding in mathematics, Allen’s research involves fieldwork, lab work, and developing a mathematically driven model to help analyze, determine, and quantify the factors driving the continued rise of tick-borne illnesses.

“Tick-borne diseases are interesting because we have a very complex system where lots of different factors are interacting: climate, host community, vegetation,” said Allen. “And all these things can affect both the population of the vector, the tick, but also the persistence of the bacteria within the system. So I’m trying to look at how both abiotic drivers—like climate—and biotic drivers affect this vector-borne disease.”

Step one is counting ticks.

Each morning, Allen and his team suit up in light-colored coveralls and head out to one of Allen’s 14 designated research sites.

Once on site, the researchers split up, each armed with a one-meter square of white canvas mounted on a wooden dowel.

“It’s pretty low tech, but it’s fast, it’s cheap, and it works,” noted Allen, of the team’s drag-and-count technique.

Each site is carefully subdivided, marked by small red and yellow flags, and each subplot is further keyed to vegetation type and density. Sites range from low to high elevations (Allen uses elevation as a stand-in for climate) and are anywhere from 62 to around 42,000 acres, with large and small sites at both high and low elevations.

To catch ticks, a researcher slowly and methodically walks a subplot, dragging the canvas square along the forest floor. Every 10 meters, he or she stops, spreads out the canvas, and inspects it closely. Some kneel and peer; some spread the canvas against a tree trunk to catch the light. All find and count every single tick. Nymphs and adults get put in small plastic vials, labeled, and taken back to the lab for further research. Larvae get stuck to a piece of tape and counted.

Allen’s technique for distinguishing larvae from specks of dirt? “Blow on it and see if it crawls.” Ticks respond to movement, heat, and carbon dioxide.

Afternoons are spent back in the lab. Each tick is put under a microscope, pierced in the gut (where Borrelia burgdorferi resides) with a surgical needle, and tested for the Lyme-causing bacteria. Further tests then reveal which of the 19 possible Borrelia strains found in the Northeast an infected tick was carrying. Many strains can be correlated to specific host animals; some are more virulent to humans than others.

Out in the field, not just any old tick will do. Allen and crew are only looking for Ixodes scapularis (commonly known as the blacklegged tick, or deer tick), the tick that spreads Lyme disease in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and north-central states like Wisconsin and Minnesota.

“It takes a little while to learn to identify them quickly, but after that it’s pretty straightforward,” said biology major Maisie Anrod ’19.

In Vermont, the Ixodes life cycle takes two years to complete. In year one, the larvae hatch, feed, and molt into nymphs. In year two, the nymphs feed and molt into adults; the new adults then find a host and feed. Most typically, adults mate on the host, males die after mating, and females overwinter to lay eggs the next spring . . . and the cycle starts all over again. At each life stage, a tick feeds only once. In Vermont, larvae tend to hatch in late summer. Nymphs—which transmit the most Lyme to humans because they’re more difficult to detect—are most active early to mid-summer. Adults are most active in the fall.

Larvae are born free of Borrelia; so to be Lyme vectors ticks must acquire Borrelia from host animals. Larvae and nymphs prefer to feed on smaller animals, like mice. Adult ticks prefer larger mammals, like deer. Some animals are better Borrelia hosts and transmitters than others. Top dog in the Northeast is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, which is 1.5 times likelier to transmit B. burgdorferi than Eastern chipmunks, six times likelier than Eastern gray squirrels, and a whopping 35 times likelier than possums, according to some studies. (Possums, curiously enough, emerge as unlikely heroes in the battle against Lyme because in addition to low incidence for carrying the bacteria they are also great groomers and thus far likelier to bring the tick life cycle to a biting end.)

Since first being identified near Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975, Lyme has emerged as vector-borne public health enemy number one.

“The intersection of public health and conservation is really interesting,” said conservation biology major Harper Baldwin, who, along with the rest of Allen’s research crew, appreciates the real-world applicability of the Lyme ecology project. Evan Fedorov, a soon-to-be sophomore planning to major in molecular biology and biochemistry, noted that he was interested in the tick research because of his interest in infectious diseases: “Dave’s research is so relevant to Vermont and to public health, so for me it was a great fit.”

Tick-, flea-, and mosquito-borne illnesses have tripled since 2004, according to a May 2018 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme is by far the most common, accounting for 82 percent of all tick-borne illnesses and 63 percent of all vector-borne illnesses. While just 30,000 cases of Lyme are reported each year in the United States, the CDC estimates actual numbers at around 300,000.

Allen and other scientists continue to ask, “Why?”

Possible culprits include a warming climate and forest fragmentation, leading to loss of biodiversity. While mice, for example, do well in fragmented ecosystems, many others do not. Fewer foxes or owls mean a lot more mice—more ticks and more disease.

But the picture is far from complete.

Since 1975, Lyme has spread predominantly north from Connecticut to Maine (now top state for Lyme incidence, with Vermont close behind), and to Wisconsin and Minnesota. But what part of seasonal temperature variation formerly limited Ixodes’s range? Cooler summers? Warmer winters? Both? What part do rainfall, humidity, and other weather patterns play? Last summer, one of the rainiest Junes on record, Allen counted double the ticks; this year numbers have dropped to previous levels. Allen and team are building “tick hotels” this summer to see how ticks fare when exposed to different levels of humidity: desiccation can mean mortality. And what about “questing” behavior, the way ticks cling to vegetation when they crawl up out of the leaf litter, lurking for a host?

Last year a student researcher discovered that—contrary to the literature—ticks preferred conifer to deciduous leaf litter. Was that because of the record rainfall? Allen has found that ticks don’t like to quest from ferns. Why? A recently graduated senior researched Borrelia rates in two identical-looking species of mice. Taking mouse ear clips to genetically identify each species, she determined that deer mice have an even higher infection rate than white-footed mice. So did previous studies ignore the mouse doppelganger?

Understanding the ecological complexities, said Allen, will give humans better tools for predicting, controlling, and preventing the spread of Lyme disease.

“We try to tease apart those potential covariants,” said Allen, noting that “ecology is a very complicated place to do modeling. Very small systems and very large systems,” like those studied by moecular biologists, physicists, and astronomers, “are more orderly. Things in the middle don’t often follow the rules as much.”

By Gaen Murphree; Photos by Todd Balfour


Our son Jon graduated from Middleberry into thousand eight, and I have been bitten by a deer ticks twice once in 2007 and again in 2017. Both times I was lucky enough to be presented with the Bullseye lesion and was on antibiotics within 48 hours. I would like to be apprised of your research if I could thank you very much.

by Barbara Lanahan (not verified)

We too spend summers in VT and in the past 2 years have gotten ticks in Granville, and the bulls-eye, and taken doxycycline right away, end of story. My husband came home from FRANCE with a bite and then the bulls eye. he too took meds, and no further symptoms. We LAUD your research....and feel Lyme Disease compromises enjoyment of our land.

by Julie Parker (not verified)

Thank you very much for the article. This (tick bacteria and related illnesses) has been on my mind because just last week blood work came back positive for bacterial infection caused by Ticks. I was surprised and then not so surprised. About 12 yrs ago I ended up in the emergency room with an inexplicable foot/leg infection. Doctors couldn't diagnosis it; I had no bulls eye circles and never noticed a bite. Now finally taking antibiotics; guess I'm one of those under reported 300,00 cases! Thanks again for the analysis.

by Prof. Sarah E. ... (not verified)

I am a Middlebury graduate and got back by a tick 3 years back. It went undiagnosed for 9 months and did massive damage to my body - including nerve damage, feeling loss, memory loss, exhaustion. It almost destroyed my life. I got treated with intense IV treatments and an assortment of vitamins for 2 years and finally feel like myself. In my opinion, so many diseases get misdiagnosed when it really is Lymes. Please keep up the research, it is very needed.

by Anthony L (not verified)

This is a fascinating read and Dr. Allen and his students are performing vital research. Lyme disease is becoming a national epidemic and we need more strong minds in the trenches doing the work to solve this vector borne illness. Thank you to Dr. Allen for the great work you are doing and to Middlebury for its support. FYI - There is an organization in CO that is supporting families across the nation who are suffering from Lyme as well as scientists and doctors doing research. It's one to know about and it was started by
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a courageous young woman, Olivia G, who has battled lyme for several years. For more information, please check it out: There's also a great app "TickTracker" that is a social/crowd based tool that helps identify, track, and properly instruct on how best to get rid of a tick if it's been found on a person. Jon-Erik Borgen '99
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by Jon Borgen (not verified)

In the mid 1980’s my 3 school children and I lived in Vienna, Austria which is adjacent to the province, Burgenland. They were required to have a series of 3 inoculations in order to attend school outings. We all where inoculated and have lived since then in MA, NY, CA, OR and Alberta, Canada. None of us has, luckily had a tick incident. Why is there no such inoculation available in the USA? Or are we really that lucky? We are all hiking, gardening etc.

by Susan (not verified)

Ticks and mice are significant threats to my family's well-being; anecdotal evidence available by request. We would like to read more of your research and are interested in ways that we might contribute to your endeavors.Thank you for pursuing this important issue.

by Ned Harding '68 (not verified)

My son has the same story as you. He had an inexplicable infection in his leg when he was 16 with a fever and malaise. No one knew what his illness was other than "non-specific virus." After scores of doctors and hospital visits, he has since been diagnosed and treated with many courses of antibiotics and other homeopathic remedies. Way too late! Nothing has helped and he is now home-bound at age 27. If this had been diagnosed and treated earlier, it would not have had the devastating effect it has had on him
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and our entire family. Thanks for your persistent studies and research. Hopefully this will assist others. Here's hoping medical science catches up to those who suffer incredibly each day and have found no relief.
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by Sue Brizek (not verified)

Thank you Dave for this informative research. Your explanation of the complexities of this study gives a rollercoaster like perspective on the life cycle of the tick, the possible, and more probable hosts, climate, and forest-type variables. Questing behavior of ticks is interesting. Who've have thought a tick might prefer a type of plant to climb so they can hop off onto a host. It's neat to note, that so far, you've found the deer mouse has a higher Borrelia incidence than the white footed mouse. And as people have pointed out the effects of Lyme can
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be varied. My husband got acute Lyme with the bull's eye inflammation and high fever. He went on antibiotics and hasn't had other verified symptoms. But for some the infection can be life devastating. Thank you for the good work!
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by Vicki Major (not verified)

Thanks for all of the interesting comments and words of support for the research. I really appreciate that. Jon B.: Yeah that TickTracker app is great! I hope that it catches on so, as the crowd-sourced information could be very powerful. Susan: There was a Lyme disease vaccine, LYMErix, on the available in the United States for a few years in the late 90s and early 00s. It was taken off the market in 2002 because of declining sales and reports of potential side effects. You can read about it here There are currently a number of Lyme disease vaccines in development,
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but they are probably many years from market at best (if they ever make it).
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by David Allen (not verified)