Originated by: Ed Sullivan 
July 1995
Last Reviewed:  July 2006




1.0       INTRODUCTION                                       

2.0       SCOPE                                             

3.0       MINI-SPEC                                          

4.0       DEFINITIONS                                        

5.0       APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS                               

6.0       REQUIREMENTS/PROCEDURES                            

7.0       RESPONSIBILITIES                                   


1.0       LOCKOUT-TAGOUT AUDIT FORM                          

2.0       CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY                        

3.0       LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURE                           



1.1  This program is written to comply with VOSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 "The
Control of Hazardous Energy" .  "The Control of Hazardous
Energy" which establishes requirements for the control of hazardous
energy during the servicing and maintenance equipment.  It is
intended to prevent injury to employees from the unexpected 
energization or start-up of equipment, or from stored energy.  A
uniform practice for de-energizing and tagging or locking out energy
sources will eliminate the possibility of activating moving parts,
energizing electrical circuits, releasing stored energy or opening
valves during repair or maintenance activities.


2.1  This procedure applies to all contract, temporary and permanent Middlebury
College employees who are engaged in the following activities.

2.1.1. Servicing or maintaining equipment in which the unexpected
energization could injure employees.

2.1.2. Operating equipment that is being serviced or maintained.

2.1.3  Working in an area in which a tagout or lockout system is used.

2.1.4  Working on, near, or with electrical circuits and equipment. 

2.2  Energy sources that could cause injury include but are not limited to
electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical or thermal.

2.3  EXCEPTIONS:  Not covered under this procedure are normal
operations unless 1) an employee is required to remove a guard or
other safety device or 2) an employee is required to place any part
of his/her body into an area of the machine or equipment where he/she
could be injured.

2.3.1   Work on cord and plug equipment is not covered by this
document if;
1) The unexpected energization or start-up is controlled by
such equipment (the plug is pulled from the receptacle) and
2) The plug is under the exclusive control of the employee
(within his/her vision) performing the servicing or



3.1   This document defines the requirements of  Middlebury College's Energy Control
Program.  It's purpose is to prevent injury to employees who service
or maintain equipment where that equipment could unexpectedly become

It includes general procedures, the format for specific written
procedures, training and inspection guidelines and responsibilities.


4.1     Affected Employee:   An employee whose job requires him/her to
operate or use a  machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being
performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in
which such servicing or  maintenance is being performed.

4.2     Authorized Employee:   A person who locks or implements a tagout system procedure to
perform the servicing or maintenance on a piece of equipment.  An authorized employee
and an affected employee may be the same person when the affected employee's duties
also include performing maintenance or service on equipment which must be locked out or
tagged out.

4.3     Energy Isolating Device:     A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission
or release of energy, including but not limited to the following:  a manually operated
electrical circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch by which the
conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors and,
a slide gate; a slip blind; a line valve; a block; and any simile device used to block or
isolate energy.
The term DOES NOT INCLUDE a push button, selector switch, and other control circuit
type devices.

4.4     "Capable of being locked out":  An energy-isolating device will be considered to be
capable of being locked out either if it is designed with a hasp other attachment or
integral part to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed,  if it has a locking
mechanism built into it.  Other energy isolating devices will also be considered to be
capable of being locked out if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle,
rebuild, or replace the energy isolating device or permanently alter its energy control

4.5     Energy Source:   Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical,
thermal or other energy.

4.6     Lockout Device:  A device that utilizes a positive means such as lock, either key or
combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevent the
energizing of a machine or equipment


4.7     Normal Production Operations:    The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform
its intended production function.

4.8     Servicing and/or Maintenance:     Work place activities such as constructing, installing,
setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines
or equipment.  These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming machines or
equipment and making adjustments or tool changes where the employee may be exposed
to the unexpected energization or start-up of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.

4.9     Tagout Device:   A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a  means of attachment,
which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device and  the equipment being
controlled may not be operated until the Tagout device is removed.


5.1    VOSHA standard 29CFR 1910.147 "Control of Hazardous Energy"


6.1     Tag & Lock Requirements

6.1.1    Lockout and tagout devices must be standardized for the Middlebury College campus  


6.1.2  Locks are available through your supervisor.  Each authorized employee is responsible for     
the locks (s) assigned to him/her.  Locks must always be accompanied by a standard tag 
so that the lock will be identified. Supervisors will maintain a list of  locks and keys and
the names of the employees to whom they have been assigned.

6.1.3    All locks will be on the "one lock-one key" rule.  Only the individual who is responsible 
for the lock can have a key to the lock.

6.1.4     Tags must be identified with the name of the authorized employee.

6.2    Use of Locks and Tags

6.2.1.    All equipment shall be locked and tagged out to protect against accidental operation
when such operation could cause injury to personnel.


6.2.2   Each authorized employee, or crew leader if a team is involved, working on equipment 
applies his/her own lock / tag to the equipment.  NEVER assume protection by working
under another person's lock / tag.

6.2.3   When working as a team, you may apply one lock per team provided management will
assign responsibility to their employee who is a member of the team (crew Leader).  
Employees or contractors from other companys must apply their own locks and tags.

6.2.4   A manager or supervisor may designate a crew leader, who would be responsible for  
locking and tagging for the crew before the job begins and locking off only when all
work is complete and members of the crew are accounted for.

6.2.5    Lockout (vs. tagout) must be used when the energy  isolating device is capable of
being locked out.  The lock should be accompanied by the standard tag which
identifies the person who initiated the lockout/tagout

6.2.6    Tagout (no lock) shall only be used when the energy  isolating device is not capable
of being locked out.  An additional means must be taken to ensure the equipment is 
completely shut down.  For example; a disconnection at the electrical fuse/breaker box.

6.2.7     Tags must be fastened securely to the energy isolating  device by means substantial
enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal.

6.2.8     Only authorized employees are permitted to implement a  lockout/tagout procedure.     
Authorized employees must be trained in accordance with the VOSHA standard.  The 
names of those authorized to implement lockout/tagout on a machine or piece of 
equipment must be identified in writing.


6.3    New Equipment Requirements

6.3.1 Any new equipment installed must have an energy isolating device that is capable
of being locked out

6.4  Equipment Modification                                   

6.4.1   Whenever major replacement, repair, renovation or modification of machines or
equipment is performed, the energy isolating device will be designed/modified
to accept a lockout device.

6.5    Removal of Locks

6.5.1 It is a serious matter when an authorized employee mistakenly leaves a lock or tag
on a piece of equipment and the supervisor must authorize the removal of the device.  
There is a potential for injury if the employee resumes the work activity with the belief that               
his/her  lock / tag is still in place providing protection.

6.5.2 Each lockout/tagout device shall be removed from each energy  isolating device
by the employee who applied the lock / tag.

6.5.3 When the authorized employee who applied the lock / tag is not available to
remove it, attempts will be made by the supervisor to contact the employee and
request that he/she return to the site to remove the device.  If the employee is not
available, only the supervisor may authorized the removal of the device.  In
addition, lockout/tagout removal under these circumstances may be performed
only when the following conditions are met:

*  The supervisor has verified that the authorized employee who applied the
device is not at the facility.  This should be done by paging the employee and
checking with coworkers.

*  The supervisor has made all reasonable efforts to contact  the authorized
employee to tell him/her that his/her lockout device has been removed.  This
would include phoning the employee at home, sending a mail message, leaving
a phone message, or leaving a note at the individuals desk or workstation.

*  The supervisor has ensured that the authorized employee has the knowledge
that his/her lockout or tagout device has been removed before the employee
resumes work.

*  The supervisor must also be a trained and authorized employee to remove a
lockout device.


6.5.4  When the above steps have been completed, the supervisor may
remove the lock / tag or will contact the facilities department to remove the lock.

6.6     Group Lockout/Tagout

6.6.1  Multiple locks or tags must be used if more that one employ is working on
the equipment.  Each authorized employee working on the equipment must apply
his/her own lock / tag and must remove only his/her own lock / tag when the
work is completed.  Hasps are available from your supervisor for group lockout.

6.6.2  If more than one authorized person is working on a piece of  equipment under
Lockout/Tagout, then a group lockout procedure must be followed.
(exception:  see 6.2.2, 6.2.3 and 6.2.4)

6.7    Change of Personnel or Shift

6.7.1  For shift or personnel changes there must be an orderly transfer of lockout or
tagout devices between the first employee (s) and the relieved employee (s).

6.8    Lockout/Tagout Procedures for Contractors

6.8.1  Whenever outside contractors will be engaged in activities requiring lockout/tagout, the             
project manager/supervisor will be responsible for assisting the contractor in
implementing standard lockout/tagout procedures.

6.8.2  Long-term contractors will be issued a lock and tag and may attend
training given by Environmental, Health & Safety.

6.8.3  Project managers who work with short-term contractors may  keep a supply of
locks and tags for use by short-term contractors.  When not in use, this supply
must be under strict control.  A lock can be issued to a short-term contractor
and collected when the job is done.  A tag will be issued a identified with the
contractor's name and company name.  The tag will be discarded when the job is

6.8.4  Written lockout/tagout procedures for equipment being serviced or maintained by
contract employees must be reviewed with those employees prior to the work


6.9    Specific Written Procedures

6.9.1  When lockout/tagout is required, specific written procedures shall be developed
and used for each piece of equipment or each type of equipment.
EXCEPTION:  Specific written procedures are not required for a particular piece
of equipment only when ALL of the following conditions are met.

(1)  The equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or
re-accumulation of stored energy after shutdown that could endanger personnel;

(2)  The equipment has a single energy source that can be readily identified and

(3)  The isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely de-energize
and deactivate the equipment;

(4)  The equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during
service or maintenance;

(5)  A single lockout device will achieve a lockout condition;

(6)  The lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee
performing the servicing or maintenance;

(7)  The servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees,

(8)  There have been no accidents involving the unexpected energization of the
piece of equipment.

6.9.2   The attached form is used to document specific lockout/tagout procedures for
each piece of equipment on which it is required.  (see Appendix 3)

6.9.3   Authorized employees must know the location of lockout/tagout procedures and
following them with performing lockout/tagout on the equipment.

6.9.4   Procedures must be updated to reflect changes in equipment, the method or
location of energy isolating devices, energy sources or authorized personnel.

6.9.5   Sequence of Lockout or Tagout Procedure

Refer to the specific written procedure for exact details of the procedure.

The purpose of the lockout/tagout procedure is to ensure that all requirements
are met for safe use of equipment that is down for service or maintenance.


1)  Notify affected employees that lockout/tagout procedure is going to be used.

2)  Shut the machine down by normal stopping procedures; i.e.  stop button,
toggle switch, etc. ...
3)  Operate all energy isolating devices so that the equipment is isolated from all
energy sources.

4)  Lockout or tagout the energy isolating device (s) according to the method (s)
documented in the procedure.

NOTE:  Be certain as to which switch, valve, or other isolating devices apply to
the equipment being locked out.  More than one energy source may be involved.

5)  Dissipate or restrain all stored energy.  Stored energy such as that in
capacitors, springs, air, gas and water pressure must also be dissipated or
restrained by methods such as grounding, bleeding down, repositioning,
blocking,  etc.  Bleed off resistors should be used to assure that high voltage
capacitors lose their charge.  Always short before beginning electrical services
to be sure.

6)  After ensuring that no personnel are exposed, verify disconnection's by
attempting to energize the equipment with the equipment documented in the
written procedure.

CAUTION:  Return operating controls to the "OFF" position after the test.

7)  The equipment is now locked out or tagged out

6.10    Restoring the Machine or Equipment to Normal Operation

6.10.1  After the servicing and/or maintenance is complete and the equipment ready for
normal production operations, check for the following.
*   All employees are in the clear
*   The equipment is operationally intact
*   Non-essential items (e.g. tools) have been removed, and
*   All guards have been reinstalled

6.10.2  Notify affected employees that the lockout/tagout devices  will be removed before
the removal and the restoration of energy.


6.10.3  Operate the energy isolating device to restore energy.

6.11    Training

6.11.1  Employees shall be trained in Lockout/Tagout  Procedures if their job warrents it.

6.11.2  The lockout/tagout training program ensures that affected and 
authorized personnel and their supervisors will understand the purpose and
function of the Middlebury College Energy Control Program and have the knowledge                   
and skills required for the safe application, use and removal of energy controls.

6.11.3  Retraining will be required whenever there is a change in job assignment,
equipment or processes that present a new hazard, or in the energy control procedures.

6.11.4  Additional retraining is also required whenever a periodic inspection of the energy
control procedures indicates deficiencies in an employee's knowledge or use of
the energy control procedures.

6.12    Periodic Inspections

6.12.1  A periodic inspection of the energy control procedures shall  be conducted at least

6.12.2  The inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee other that the
one(s) using the energy control procedure being inspected.  For example the department  

6.12.3 The periodic inspection shall include a review between the inspector and each
authorized employee and affected employee of the employee's responsibilities
under the energy control procedure being inspected.



7.1    Supervisor is responsible for:

1)  Ensuring that new employees attend Lockout/Tagout.

2)  Ensuring that authorized employees have lockout/tagout devices and that
devices are identified.

3)  Maintaining a list of locks and keys and the names of employees to whom they
have been assigned.

4)  Identifying all equipment covered by this standard that must be serviced or
maintained by his/her employees.

5)  Ensuring that specific procedures are developed and updated as required for
each piece of equipment maintained or serviced by his/her employees.

6)  Ensuring that specific energy control procedures record are maintained.
(see Appendix 3)

7)  Ensuring that  lockout/tagout procedures are followed.

8)  Ensuring that lockout/tagout devices are not used for any purpose other than

9)  Ensuring that all lockout/tagout devices conform to the facility's standard.                       

10)  Removing the lockout or tagout device when the authorized employee who
applied  the device is not available.

7.2    Employee is responsible for:

1)  Following the procedures that have been developed  for lockout/tagout and
ensuring the proper use of his/her equipment.

2)  Reporting any lost lockout/tagout equipment immediately to his/her supervisor.

3)  Ensuring that his/her lockout/tagout equipment is not use by anyone else.

4)  Notifying affected employees before lockout/tagout is performed and then
again before energy is restored once servicing or  maintenance is completed.


7.3   EH&S is Responsible for:

1)  Developing and maintaining the program required by VOSHA Standard(s).

2)  Providing guidance on the interpretation of the standard.

3)  Provide classroom training to ensure compliance with the standard.

4)  Auditing compliance with established lockout/tagout procedures.


Date of Audit: _______________                            Auditor (s): ____________________________


Date of Installation: ___________________________       Location: _______________________          

Is this equipment powered by a cord and plug?                     YES _______NO ________

Is there a lockable disconnect?                                                   YES_______  NO ________


*  This section must be completed for each authorized person who is being audited *

Authorized employee:_________________________________________
Department: ________________________________ Job Title:______________________

Supervisor/Manager: __________________________/___________________________
(name)                                                                         (name)

Could this person locate the written procedure for this equipment?  YES________  NO ________

Has this person attended  LOTO Training?                                            YES _______ NO ________
(must be verified by  documentation)

Date of Training: ___________________________________________________

Did this person author the written LOTO procedure?            YES_______ NO ________

If not, has this person been trained in the specific written
LOTO procedure?                                                                          YES ________ NO _______

Is there written documentation of this training?                      YES _______ NO ________

Could this employee simulate the LOTO procedure (may refer to the
written procedure) demonstrating familiarity with the location of the
energy-isolating device, energy dissipation methods, checking to ensure
disconnection's, etc.                                                                    YES ________ NO ________



Are only standardized locks and/or tags in use for LOTO purpose?              YES _______NO ____

Is tag identified with authorized employee's name?                                       YES _______NO ____

Is name legible?                                                                                              YES ______  NO____

Is the tag fastened securely to the equipment?                                                 YES_______NO _____

Were LOTO devices seen being used for other purposes?                               YES ______ NO_____

Can authorized employee account for two keys?                                               YES ______NO _____

Are all lockable energy-isolating devices locked out, not just tagged out?        YES______ NO ________

Are all locks accompanied by a tag?                                                                   YES ______NO _____




1:    The purpose of LOTO is to prevent injury to employees who perform service or
maintenance on de-energized equipment from the unexpected energization of
that equipment or from stored energy.

2:    LOTO is not just for electrical energy sources!  Gases, liquid chemical, mechanical,
water, etc.  can all be hazardous energy sources.  Procedures should address all
sources of energy.

3:    LOTO does not have to be done on equipment powered by cord and plug if 1)
you have pulled the plug and 2) the plug is under your exclusive control

4:    Only the standardized locks and tags demonstrated in class may be used
for LOTO.

5:    LOTO locks and tags can only be used for LOTO, not for locking toolboxes
cabinets, etc.  Tags must have your name on them.

6:    Your lock (s) and tag (s) must be under your control at all times.
NO ONE ELSE CAN USE THEM.                

7:   If energy-isolating device can be locked out, it must be locked out.   If it is not
lockable, use the tag.

8:    All new equipment installed after January 2, 1990, must have lockable disconnects.

9:    NEVER work under the protection of someone else's lock/tag, except when complying with 6.2.2,
6.2.3 and 6.2.4 (crew leaders).  Only the person who applies the lock/tag can remove it.  If that  
person mistakenly leaves the lock/tag on and is not available to remove it, only the supervisor can 
authorize it's removal.

10:   There must be a written procedure on each piece of equipment or type of equipment.
Know where they are located and use them.

11:   Don't just know about Lockout/Tagout - DO IT !!!  This is critical safe practice
which will save lives and prevent injuries.  LOTO will always be scrutinized during
any VOSHA inspection.


DATE _______________________

1:    Name/Location of Equipment:
e.g.     House Vacuum / #1 Boiler Room

2:    Type/Magnitude of energy and hazards:
e.g.     Possible dust/arsenic inhalation if equipment were energized unexpectedly.

3:    Names/Job Titles of employees authorized to lock/tagout:
e.g. Mark Boser, Hazardous Waste Tech

4:    Names/Jobs of affected employees and how to notify:
e.g.     Security @ x5911 because they will get an alarm when the vacuum is turned off.

5:    Type/Location of energy-isolating means: 

e.g.  Motor Control Center #1 -House Vacuum Panel.  #1 Boiler Room  2 control
switches, both are turned off.  Lockout is done on the left switch.

6:    Type of stored Energy-Means to dissipate or restrain:

e.g.      Not applicable

7:    Method (lockout or tagout) and any additional safety measures:

e.g.      Lockout with tag.

8:    Type of equipment checked to ensure disconnections:

e.g.      None

9:    Name (s) of employees authorized for group lock/tagout:

e.g.      Not applicable.


1:    Name/Location of Equipment:
e.g.                  *  Liquid Metronics chemical pump

*  chiller room - south wall - on condenser water circuit
(tower treatment).

2:    Type/Magnitude of energy and hazards:

e.g.                  *  Electrical 115 volts
*  Liquid pressure 100-200 PSI
*  Chemical #2897 Nalco Chemical see MSDS and Safety Sheets on tank.

3:    Names/Job Titles of employees authorized to lock/tagout:

e.g.                  *  Facilities Mechanics and Electricians.

4:    Names/Jobs of affected employees and how to notify:
e.g.                  *  Facilities Mechanics and Electrician.

5:    Type/Location of energy-isolating means:

e.g.                  *  Electrical - unplug at 4 way receptacle on wall above pumps

*  Chemical - 3/4" ball valves at header on discharge on wall above pumps.

6:    Type of stored energy-means to dissipate or restrain:
*  Electrical 115 volt unplug

*  Pressure 100-200 PSI bleed off.

*  Chemical #2897 Nalco wash down.

7:    Method (lockout or tagout)  and any additional safety  measures:
*  Electrical, Loto

*  Chemical, valve tag, and lockout

8:    Type of equipment checked to ensure disconnection's:

*  Electrical visual volt meter

*  Chemical

9:    Name (s) of employees authorized for group lock/tagout:
*  Same as #3.