Nutrition Handbook

Middlebury College Sports Medicine

Nutrition Handbook

             The Middlebury College Sports Medicine Staff is dedicated to providing the highest quality of service to all athletes.  With so many misconceptions and misinformation in the realm of nutrition we felt it necessary to provide our athletes with the appropriate information.  .

            This handbook contains current nutrition information and recommendations.  The goal of this handbook is to give athletes some direction on proper nutrition, which may have a positive effect on their performance.  Proper nutrition can impact each athlete in injury prevention, improved healing from any athletic injury and reaching optimal athletic performance.

            Please keep this nutrition handbook for all four years of your athletic career here at Middlebury College.  The Sports Medicine Staff will always be available to answer your questions and assist you with any concerns you may have.


Director of Sports Medicine                   Kelly Cray ATC

                                                            (802) 443-2315


Associate Athletic Trainer                  Rachel Eldredge MS, ATC, CSCS

                                                            (802) 443-5636


Assistant Athletic Trainer                    Judd Mackey MS, ATC

                                                            (802) 443-5810

Assistant Athletic Trainer                    Matt Cutts MS, ATC, CSCS

                                                           (802) 443-2316

Assistant Athletic Trainer                    Bethany Bernard MS, ATC

                                                           (802) 443-5976

Assitstant Athletic Trainer                   Chris Palmer MS, ATC, CSCS

                                                           (802) 443-5641


Team Physician                                   Dr. Mark Peluso

                                                            (802) 443-5135



What is Nutrition?

             Nutrition is essentially the nutrients one eats in order to fuel their body.  The body cannot function without nutrients.  Nutrients are found in both food and many beverages.  The nutrients that are consumed are turned into energy for the body to use. This energy is used for such functions as basic breathing, digestion, etc., but is also essential for athletic activity. 

            Probably one of the most popular words associated with nutrition is diet.  The actual definition of diet per Webster’s New World Dictionary is “ what a person or animal usually eats and drinks; daily fare”.  When you examine this definition, diet is essentially the food and beverages a person consumes each day.  An athlete’s diet should consist of plenty of nutrients to fuel their peak athletic performance.

            The greatest confusion for most athletes is, “what is a proper diet for an athlete?”  Everywhere we look there are new dieting gimmicks and supplements that promise increased energy, which translates into increased athletic performance.  It is sometimes hard to discern what is proper nutrition for athletic performance and what are erroneous, unproven and harmful marketing techniques.

            Through scientific studies we know there are six essential nutrients, carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. The body will not function properly without all of the six nutrients.  Finding a balance between all these nutrients will not only have a positive impact on your overall health, but also optimize your athletic performance.  For instance, muscle cells are made up of 75% water and will not function efficiently if they are dehydrated.  As these cells become dehydrated they induce cramping in the muscles and inhibit an athlete’s ability to perform.  The Gatorade Sport Science Institute has proven that 1-2% dehydration can decrease one’s performance by 2-5%.  This decrease in performance can be the difference between a win or loss.

            Three of the essential nutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins, are considered energy nutrients, meaning they contain calories that are converted into energy in the body.  The next section gives a general explanation of each nutrient.


Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in breads, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, which, during digestion, are changed into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen until cells need it for energy.  Glucose is the body’s primary energy source.  During high intensity, short-duration exercise (such as sprinting) and during high intensity, intermittent activities (such as field and court sports) carbohydrate (glucose) is the primary source of fuel/energy for the brain and working muscles.

Carbohydrates are broken up into two major categories.  Complex carbohydrates, also known as starches include breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and vegetables.  Then there are simple carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars, which include table sugar, honey, candies, sweets, cakes, soft drinks, some fruits, and fruit juice.  Complex carbohydrates are best used throughout the day to keep energy at a consistent level.  Simple sugars increase energy levels very quickly are best consumed prior to an increase in activity or right after long bouts of activity (practice or competition).  Complex and simple sugars are ranked within the Glycemic Index as to what kind of affect they have on our blood sugar levels.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

            Within the glycemic index white bread with a score of 100 is the standard to which other carbohydrates are compared.  The Gatorade Sports Science Institute has studied and broken foods into three different categories within the glycemic index with 100 being the highest score and 0 being the lowest score.  They are broken up into high, medium and low glycemic foods.  High glycemic foods increase blood glucose rapidly, increasing available energy.  These are good right before and right after increased activity in order to be effective.  They are most useful in sprint type activities where there are short bursts of energy released at a time or right after increase activity to increase recovery.  The next level is the moderate glycemic foods.  These foods raise blood glucose more slowly than the high glycemic foods and increase energy a at slightly steadier pace.  They should be consumed at least 2 hours before increase activity in order to give the body time to break down the carbohydrates into energy.  The last category is the low glycemic index foods.  These foods increase blood sugar at a slower pace than the other two categories, but also sustain energy levels for much longer.  These foods are best consumed on a regular basis, except for 2 hours before competition, in order to keep a steady level of available energy.  The list below is only an example of what types of foods are found in each category.


High Glycemic Index Foods (70-100)                        Moderate Glycemic Index Foods(59-69)

Raisins                                                                         Grapes

Watermelon                                                                 Banana

Potatoes                                                                      Orange Juice

Sports Drinks                                                              Mango

Bagel, White                                                               Green Peas

White Bread                                                                Rice

Rye Bread                                                                   Whole Wheat Bread

Honey/Syrup                                                               Spaghetti


Ice Cream



Low Glycemic Index Foods(55-under)







9 Grain Bread

 The glycemic load refers to the amount of each food that has to be eaten in order to render and increase in blood glucose levels.  For example most candy is in the high glycemic foods, but having one small piece of candy is not going to increase your blood sugar significantly.  Therefore it would have a lower glycemic load.  The glycemic load values run from 0 being low up to 50 being the high.  In the refence section there is a web site that you can put in any food and it will give you the glycemic index and glycemic load. 


            This nutrient has several different functions within the body.  First fat works as an insulator and protector of our major organs.  It also aids in the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K, as well as assisting in hormonal regulations.  Most importantly for athletes fats are the long-term energy source.  There are three main types of fat: saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. 

            Saturated fats are primarily found in animal products such as butter, beef, pork, lamb, poultry and partially hydrogenated oils.  These fats can increase the risks for high cholesterol, heart disease, and arterial disease.  Only about 30% of an athletes’ fat intake should come from saturated fat.  Mono and poly-unsaturated fats are found in corn oil, vegetable oils, canola oil and olive oil.  These are considered the “GOOD” fats because they can help lower cholesterol, and reduce the risks of coronary heart disease. 



            Protein is the structural basis for all muscle tissue.  In fact, your muscle tissue is about 72% water, 22% protein, 6% fat and other nutrients.  They build, repair, and maintain all body tissues (muscles, bones, blood vessels, hormones and hair).  Proteins are broken down during digestion into different amino acids.  There are 9 essential and 13 non-essential amino acids.  The body produces the 13 non-essential amino acids, but must get the other 9 essential amino acids from meat.

            There are two types of dietary protein, complete protein and incomplete protein.  Complete protein foods include lean meats, chicken, turkey, pork, fish, eggs and dairy products.  These foods include all 9 of the essential amino acids.  Incomplete protein foods are missing one or more of the 9 essential amino acids.  These foods include beans, pasta, bread, nuts, soy products, vegetables and fruits.  For vegetarians or people who don’t eat much meat, two or more of the foods in the incomplete category can be combined to make a complete protein containing all 9 essential amino acids.







55-65% of total calorie 


10% of total carbohydrates 


90% of total carbohydrates 




20-30% of total calories


7-10% of total fats


10% of total fats


10% of total fats




12-15% of total calories

 Vitamins and Minerals

             Vitamins and minerals are also an essential part of a healthy diet.  They not only assist in optimizing athletic performance, but also aide in the healing process.  Athletes are always looking for ways to heal faster in order to get back out on the playing field.  By maintaining a balanced diet with plenty of vitamins and minerals an athlete can increase their ability to heal and even prevent some serious infections.  Listed below are some essential vitamins and minerals that should be included in an athlete’s diet.  Though it is popular to use a multi-vitamin supplement to cover the daily intake of essential vitamins and minerals, it is actually better to get these vitamins from the foods we consume every day.  As with most things more is not always better, the body can only metabolize a certain amount of vitamins and minerals at a time.  The body dispels any excess above what is necessary.   However there are few vitamins like vitamin A that can be stored in the fat and can become a health risk if too much is stored at one time. 

 Vitamin A: This vitamin is most important because it promotes growth and repair of body tissues and help with bone formation.  It also increases cells defense against infections.  It is a must have vitamin for all athletes because it can assist in the healing of injuries and infection. 

Vitamin D: This vitamin aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to build bone mass and prevent bone loss.  It is most important to preventing stress injuries, such as in the shins and feet.

Vitamin C: This vitamin is probably one of the most talked about when fighting infections.  It promotes healthy cell development, wound healing and resistance to infections. 

Vitamin E: This vitamin is one of the most powerful antioxidants, which is needed for normal growth.  It is also thought to protect against heart disease, some cancers and cataracts.  It does this by protecting the red blood cells that feed oxygen to muscles from free radicals that are thought to cause some of these diseases.

B-complex: This group of vitamins includes thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, B-6, and B-12, which are all involved with cellular metabolism.  They are key to energy output and without them the body would not be able to meet its energy demands, resulting in fatigue.

Calcium: This mineral is essential for developing strong bones and teeth.  It also assists in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission.  Many athletes that sustain stress fractures lack proper calcium in their diet.  For women this is especially important because calcium can also prevent osteoporosis.

Iron: This mineral is essential for red blood cell formation.  Red blood cells carry oxygen to the muscles, which help to sustain muscle energy.  Athletes with low iron may experience extreme fatigue and an inability to keep up with what they consider normal athletic activity.

Zinc: This mineral assists in protein synthesis, insulin utilization, carbohydrate metabolism and the absorption of the B-Vitamin complex.



Best Food Source



Vitamin A

egg yolk, some cheese, whole milk butter


peppers, squash, carrots, sweet potatoes



Vitamin D

fish, milk, margarine, fortified breakfast cereal


egg yolk, butter



Vitamin C

broccoli, cauliflower, strawberries, oranges,


grapefruit, tomatoes, pineapple, raspberries



Vitamin E

mayonnaise, fortified breakfast cereals, nuts


margarine, peanut butter



B- Complex

milk, eggs, soy protein, beef, peanuts, bananas,


broccoli, sunflower seeds, tuna, peanut butter




milk, yogurt, ice cream, cottage cheese, cheese




beef, pork, clams, kidney beans, garbanzo beans


cashews, almonds




beef, lamb, pork, chicken, lima beans,


white beans, black-eyed peas.


Proper Hydration        

            Proper nutrition will not work without proper hydration.  Nutrition is usually thought of as the food we consume, but it also includes what we drink.  Water is the major component of the human body, accounting for 73% of lean body mass.  In fact it plays a vital role in all body processes and functions, including: Cardiovascular function, Metabolism of nutrients and Body temperature regulation.

            Drinking fluids before, during and after exercise is essential for top athletic performance.  Unfortunately, athletes tend to underestimate the importance of fluid replacements as an integral part of their daily nutrition.  Listed below are some general fluid replacement tips:

  • By the time the body tells you its thirsty, it’s already dehydrated.  The best way to drink a lot of fluids is to carry a PLASTIC WATER BOTTLE with you at all times.  Fill the bottle with water or with a nutrient dense beverage (diluted fruit juices or commercial sports drinks)
  • Caffeine and caffeinated beverages (coffee, tea, and soft drinks) and alcohol should be used with caution because they are diuretics, which can cause dehydration.
  • Despite popular belief, drinking beer is not a good way to carbohydrate load.  No alcohol should be consumed before or during an event.
  • Potassium and sodium are two electrolytes that are lost in sweat.  Their function is to maintain proper fluid balance in the body.  During long and hard practices or games it is possible to deplete the body of these essential electrolytes.
  • Avoid unfamiliar beverages the day of an athletic event.  If you are not acclimated to a particular beverage, it may cause bloating, stomach cramps and diarrhea.
  • You should consume beverages that taste great, does not cause stomach cramps or diarrhea and enhances absorption and performance; fluid intake is all a matter of personal preference; what works for one athlete may not work for another athlete.
  •  It is better to hydrate throughout the day and not just before increase activity.

Below is a chart for proper hydration before, during and after exercise.

NATA Hydration Guidelines

Before Exercise

During Exercise

After Exercise

2-3 hours before drink

Every 10-20 minutes

Within 2 hours

20fl oz.

Drink 7-10fl oz.

Replace Any "Weight Lost"



with 20fl oz per pound lost




10-20 minutes before


Within 6 hours

7-10fl oz

Drink Beyond Thirst!!

Ass 25-50% more than



weight lost from exercise

Reference:  Casa, D. et al. Journal of Athletic Training 35(2): 212-224, 2000.

Eat to Compete. “The Athlete’s Sports Nutrition Program”; Fluid Replacements For the Athlete. Pg 4A-4D


Meal Spacing Guidelines 

Morning Activity

Night before: High carbohydrate meal (Low to medium glycemic) Sufficient fluid intakes to maintain hydration; If not planning breakfast in AM, eat late night snack of low/moderate glycemic index foods;

Morning of: Light breakfast of complex carbohydrate foods; Allow at least 2 hours for food to digest; If not breakfast, eat snack (high glycemic) 1-2 hours before activity;

After activity: Always consume simple sugar foods of at least 200-400 calories within one hour of activity; Replace fluid losses (20 fl oz. Water for every pound lost)

Afternoon Activity

Night before: High carbohydrate snack before bed of complex carbohydrate foods; Sufficient fluid intakes to maintain hydration

Day of: Eat hearty breakfast with high carbohydrate foods (complex carbohydrate food) and lighter lunch; Allow at least four hours before activity; High carbohydrate snack at least 2 hours before activity; Sufficient fluid intakes to maintain hydration;

After activity: Always consume simple sugar foods of at least 200-400 calories within one hour of activity; Replace fluid losses (20 fl oz. Water for every pound lost)

Evening Activity

Night before: High carbohydrate meal (low to medium glycemic foods); Sufficient fluid intakes to maintain hydration;

Day of: Eat hearty breakfast with high carbohydrate foods as well as a hearty lunch (complex carbohydrates) Allow at least four hours before activity; Eat a light meal/snack 2-3 hours before the event (complex/simple sugar foods); Sufficient fluid intakes to maintain hydration;

After activity: Always consume simple sugar foods of at least 200-400 calories within one hour of activity; Replace fluid losses (20 fl oz. Water for every pound lost)


Eat to Compete. Chapter 4: Protocols for Developing Diets and Meal Plans; Timing Meals with Event Protocol, pages 136-37.

Gatorade Sports Science Institute. Sports Science Exchange : Round table ; “Sports Foods for Athletes : What Works ?” Volume 9(1998) number 2.

Lafayette Sports Medicine. “Nutrition Handbook”.


Dining Hall Tips For the Athlete

            Many athletes rely on the dining halls for at least a few of their daily meals.  For some, selecting nutritious meals in the dining halls is a real challenge.  Most of the food services offer a large variety of foods and beverages including salad bars, fresh fruit, fruit juices, fresh breads, bagels, whole grain cereals, pancakes, waffles, pasta, rice, beans, grilled chicken and fish, Mexican foods, stir-fry foods but with so much to choose from making the healthiest choices can be overwhelming.  Therefore, creating nutritious meals in the dining halls requires just a little planning.

The following are ten dining hall tips:

     1. Combine medium/high fat entrees with low-fat side dishes.  For example…

  • Combine cheese steaks, hamburgers, hot dogs, fried chicken or fish with rice, baked potato, baked beans, tossed salad, vegetables and /or fruit instead of French fries or onion rings.
  • Enjoy an Italian sub, ham & cheese or roast beef sandwich with pretzels (hard or soft), salad, rice, pasta, and fruit instead of potato chips.
  • Eat your eggs/omelet with whole grain breads, muffins, cereals, pancakes, waffles and/or fruit instead of bacon, sausage and greasy home fries.

       2. Replace high-fat condiments (regular cream cheese, butter, sour cream, mayonnaise and salad dressings) with low/non-fat condiments (low-fat and non-fat cheeses, sour cream, mayonnaise, salad dressings, jams, apple butter, honey, syrup, mustard, salsa and ketchup.

       3. Drink, non-fat 1% or 2% low fat milk instead of whole milk!

       4. Drink more nutrient dense beverages (milk, orange juice, grapefruit juice, apple juice, and cranberry juice) and less “empty” calorie fruit punches, sweetened ice tea and soft drinks.

       5. Dessert eaters try low fat frozen yogurts, sherbet, fresh fruits, oatmeal cookies and muffins instead of high fat desserts (cakes, and cream filled and nut covered chocolate candies)

       6. Try to trim beef, pork, chicken, turkey and fish of all visible fat (marbling, skin and breaded coatings).

       7. Avoid cream and cheese sauces, soups, toppings and casseroles.  Instead select red/tomato sauces, soups and casseroles (marinara sauce over pasta, chicken and meats).

      8. Eat salads made with regular mayonnaise sparingly (egg, tuna, shrimp and chicken salads).  A serving of these salads made with regular mayonnaise may contain more than 50% fat calories.

      9. Fill two-thirds (2/3) of your breakfast, lunch and dinner plate with nutrient dense high carbohydrate food(fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, rice, pasta and baked potatoes).

     10. Remember “VARIETY IS THE SPICE OF LIFE”

Healthier dining hall items include: Whole grain cereals (Wheaties, Total, Cheerios, Raisin Bran, Special K, etc.) breads and muffins, bagels, English muffins, pancakes, waffles, fresh fruit and fruit juices, grilled lean meats, pork, poultry and fish, rice, beans, pasta, baked potatoes, fresh green salads, yogurt, chicken & beef stir-fry, chicken fajitas, turkey, chicken and lean roast beef deli sandwiches (preferably use mustard, low-fat salad dressings and mayonnaise, vegetable oils and vinegar).

Consume sparingly: Fried/batter coated chicken and fish, fatty meats, hot dogs, hamburgers, cheese and cheese filled entrees/casseroles, regular mayonnaise, cream cheese and sour cream and butter.

Reference: Eat to Compete. “The Athlete’s Sports Nutrition Program”; Dining Hall and Menu Tips. Pg 13A-13D

Choosing Foods for Performance

            The chart below will help you when making general food choices to optimize your performance.  From prior information you know that decreasing intakes of sugars while increasing fiber is ideal for increasing performance.  Also, controlling levels of fats would be prudent for health and performance.

The foods listed below are split into three categories based upon their fiber verses sugar content as well as overall fat content.  Choose the foods that will best fuel your engine!!

OK Performers – Foods that will slow you down!! Try to limit or totally avoid these foods since they are high in fat and/or sugar.

  • Biscuits, Croissants, Danish, Donuts, Muffins
  • French fries, hash browns, onion rings
  • Alfredo pasta, fried rice
  • Regular crackers, croutons, potato chips
  • Cookies, cakes with frosting, pies, milk shakes
  • Marbled red meats, corned beef, ribs, breaded/fried meats, hot dogs, sausage/bacon, pepperoni, and bologna
  • Whole milk, high fat cheese (brick)
  • Cream cheese, sour cream
  • Mayonnaise, butter, hollandaise sauce, regular salad dressing

BETTER Performers – These foods contain some levels of fats and sugars and would be ok to use occasionally.

  • Corn bread, low-fat muffins, French toast, quick breads (banana/pumpkin/zucchini), pancakes, waffles, tortillas
  • Reduced fat crackers
  • Stuffing
  • Oatmeal raisin cookies, yellow/white cake without frosting, pudding
  • Whole eggs, lean red meats and pork (round and loin cuts), reduced fat cheese, Romano cheese/Parmesan cheese
  • Low-fat sour cream, low fat mayonnaise, light dressings, olive oil, canola oil, ketchup

BEST Performers – These foods will really help you reach the highest levels of performance and health.  Use these foods daily for the highest levels of fiber and/or low to no sugar content.

  • Bagels, English muffins, breads/rolls (preferably whole wheat, rye, grain), Cheerios, Cream of Wheat, oatmeal, pasta, rice, baked potato/sweet potato, pita bread, tortillas
  • Pretzels, Animal cracker, Newtons, ginger snaps, rye crisps
  • Angle food cake, frozen yogurt
  • Egg whites, beans, skinless poultry, fish, seafood/shellfish, tuna, tofu, Canadian bacon
  • Skim and 1% milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, part-skim ricotta cheese, part-skim mozzarella/string cheese
  • Fresh, frozen or canned vegetables, vegetable juice
  • All fresh, frozen or canned fruits (canned in juice or water), dried fruit, baked apples

References: Lafayette Sports Medicine. “Nutrition Handbook”.

Eating On The Road

             Most athletes will experience being on the road for some games or events.  A few things must be kept in mind when eating on the road.  Competition venues can be anywhere from an hour to many hours away.  This can complicate a team’s ability to eat right on the road.  Snacks on long trips may be appropriate to keep athletes energized. It is important to have snacks on the bus that the team enjoys, that way they are more likely to eat them.  Also having water or sports drinks on the trip will also help to keep the athletes properly hydrated. 

Good snack foods include:

  • Apples, oranges, bananas, dried fruit
  • Pretzels, whole wheat crackers, animal crackers
  • Granola bars, trail mix, mixed nuts, cereal bars
  • Water, Gatorade

Many times because of long travel times and the number of athletes, teams will choose to stop at fast food restaurants to eat either before or after competition.  Though fast food is usually thought of as unhealthy, the good news is that many places have expanded their menus to include more nutritious foods.

The most important thing to consider when eating on the road is when are the athletes eating.  If they are eating before the game or event they should eat about 4 hours before in order to allow for proper digestion.  Also the athletes should be eating more moderate to low glycemic index foods that have a slower digestion rate and in turn will provide a more sustainable energy level through the whole game or event.   If the team is eating after the game or event, it should be within an hour of the end of the game or event.  When eating after the game the athletes should consume more high glycemic foods to replenish the glycogen (energy) that they used up during the game or event.  This will increase their ability to recover, and is especially important if the team has another game or event the next day.

When eating at a fast food restaurant, try to follow the following guidelines:

  • Allow ample time for digestion when eating before an event (at least 4 hours before activity)
  • Have your recovery fuel within one hour after ending your activity
  • Adjust your portions in conjunction with your needs – Super size is not needed!!!
  • Ask for all sauces or gravies on the side to control your own portions
  • Use a low-fat or low-calorie salad dressing
  • Choose pizzas with thinner crusts and vegetables or lean meats
  • Hold the cheese

Follow the charts on the following page to help guide your food choices when eating on the road.





Pizza Hut



Hand Tossed

Hand Tossed

Hand Tossed

Pork, Sausage


Cheese, Ham Veggies

Meat Lovers


Pepperoni Lovers


Super Supreme

Chicken Supreme

Thin N' Crispy

Thin N' Crispy

Thin N' Crispy


Pepperoni Lovers

Cheese, Ham Veggies

Meat Lovers


Pepperoni Lovers


Super Supreme

Chicken Supreme


Pork, Beef


Stuffed Crust



All items



Twisted Crust



All items



Pan Pizza

Pan Pizza


Beef, Pork, Supreme

Ham, Cheese


Meat Lovers



Pepperoni Lovers

Chicken Supreme



Veggie Lovers





Spaghetti with marinara

Spaghetti with meatballs



Supreme Sandwich


Ham and Cheese Sandwich









6" Caesar Italian BMT

All Breakfast Sandwiches

All 6" subs


Peanut Butter Cookies

(except Meatball and BMT)


Sugar Cookies

All Under Six Salads


White Macadamia Nut

Chocolate Chip Cookies



Oatmeal Raisin Cookies







Big Bacon Classic

Broccoli & Cheese Potatoe

All Sandwiches

Blue Cheese Dressing

Crispy Chicken Nuggets (5)

(except Big Bacon Classic)

Bacon & Cheese Potatoe

Medium Frosty

Side Salad

Medium Fries


Deluxe Garden Salad

Biggie Fries



All Regular Salad Dressings


Plain Potato



Sour cream & Chive Potato






Frosty (small)

Reference: Bonci, Leslie. “Fueling With Fast Food” Training and Conditioning. December 2001: 33-43







Mc Donald’s



Big Mac

Chicken McNuggets (9)


Big N' Tasty

Quarter Pounder with Cheese

Quarter Pounder

French Fries (med/large)

Filet O' Fish

Chicken McGrill

Ranch Dressing

Crispy Chicken

Chef Salad


Caesar Dressing

Garden Salad

Sausage McMuffin

Chocolate Chip Cookies

Hash Browns

Sausage Biscuit

Hot Fudge Sundae

Fruit & Yogurt Parfait

All Bagel Sandwiches

Baked Apple Pie

RF Vanilla Cone

Hotcakes with marg & syrup

Sausage Breakfast Burrito

Strawberry Sundae

Cheese Danish

Egg McMuffin

Small Shakes

Cinnamon Roll


LF Apple Bran Muffin


2 Scrambled Eggs

English Muffin


Sausage Patty

Plain Hotcakes


Apple Danish

Fruit & Walnut Salad




Burger King




Whopper with Cheese

Whopper w/ Mayo

Bacon Double Cheeseburger

Double Hamburger

BK Broiler Chicken w/o Mayo

BK Fish Sandwich

Chicken Tenders Sandwich

Chicken Tenders

Chicken Sandwich

French Fries (small)


French Fries

Onion Rings (medium)


Onion Rings

Mozzarella Sticks (4)



Dutch Apple Pie


Any Croissan'wich



Any Biscuit sandwich

Hash Brown Rounds (small)


French Toast Sticks









Philly Beef and Swiss

Beef & Cheddar

Arby's Melt with Cheddar

Chicken Bacon & Swiss

Chicken Breast Fillet

Regular Roast Beef

Turkey Sub

Roast Chicken Club

Grilled Chicken Deluxe

All Market Fresh Sandwiches

Hot Ham & Swiss

French Dip

Chicken Finger Salad

2 Potato Cakes

Light Sandwiches (all)

Jalapeno Bites

Home-style fries (small)

All Salads (except chicken fingers)

Cheddar Curly Fries

Cherry Turnover

Arby's Sauce Packet

Home-style Fries

Apple Turnover

BBQ Dipping Sauce

Mozzarella Sticks

Honey Mustard Sauce

Bronco Berry Sauce

Onion Petals

BBQ Vinaigrette Dressing

Horsy Sauce packet

Deluxe Baked Potato


Marinara Sauce

Broccoli N' Cheddar Potatoe


Sourdough with Ham

Nutritional Supplements

            The FDA regulates dietary supplements under a different set of regulations than those covering "conventional" foods and drug products (prescription and Over-the-Counter). Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), the dietary supplement manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed. FDA is responsible for taking action against any unsafe dietary supplement product after it reaches the market. Generally, manufacturers do not need to register their products with FDA nor get FDA approval before producing or selling dietary supplements. * Manufacturers must make sure that product label information is truthful and not misleading.

            As for the NCAA, their position on supplements is “Neither recommend nor condone the use of nutritional supplements.”  The NCAA Banded Substances List and the current NCAA Dietary Supplement Legislation as follows:

Proposal 99-72

Housing and Meals – Nutritional Supplements Nutritional Supplements.  An institution may provide only non-muscle building nutritional supplements to a student-athlete at any time for the purpose of providing additional calories and electrolytes, provided the supplement does not contain any NCAA banned substances

            The NCAA states that the following Sports Foods/Supplements are permissible:

  • Multivitamin/mineral
  • Energy bars with <30% protein
  • Calorie replacing drinks
  • Electrolyte replacing drinks

The NCAA Banned substance list can be found in full text at the NCAA web site:

            The NCAA statistics show that 1-3% of all drug tests are positive.  They also follow a very strict policy on positive drug tests and virtually have no second chances for those who do test positive.  A copy of the Banned Substance List has been provided on the next page.  Any questions or concerns should be discussed with your athletic trainer or physician.

            Please consult your Sports Medicine department prior to trying/initiating any supplement use.  Do not be fooled by the term natural and make sure you look before you leap!!  Below are a list of web sites with good information on nutritional supplements.


“The use of dietary supplements is completely at the athlete’s own risk”


          Calories provide energy for the body to function, anything from blood circulation to playing sport.  The body cannot function without calories.  The number of calories in food is a measure of the potential energy it may contain. A number of factors determine how many calories a persons body needs each day.  These include…

  • Gender
  • Age
  • Body Weight
  • Type of Exercise
  • Exercise Intensity
  • Exercise Duration

To calculate your daily calories to maintain your present body weight, refer to the following formulas and list of exercise/training activities.  These formulas will provide you with an estimation of your daily caloric needs (within a range of 10% high or low).  This calculation is your “maintain number”, the number of calories you need each day to maintain your present body weight.

  • Males               (body weight x 15) + exercise
  • Female             (body weight x 13) + exercise

Note… An athlete that has difficulty maintaining and/or gaining weight due to heavy training and /or a high metabolism (genetics) may want to multiply their body weight by 18 rather than 15 or 13.

Note… Refer to the next page to determine the number of calories you expend (“burn”) during one hour of exercise / training / competition. 

Reference: Eat to Compete. “The Athlete’s Sports Nutrition Program”; Dining Hall and Menu Tips. Pg 1B-1C


The number of calories and athlete “burns” during exercise depends on the athlete’s body weight and the intensity and duration of the exercise.  The following are a list of the approximate number of calories expended (burned) during one hour of various physical activities.











Baseball, player










Baseball, pitcher




















Field Hockey




















Golf (Carry Clubs)










Ice Hockey






























Running (6 min/mile)










Running (7min/mile)










Running (8 min/mile)










Running (9 min/mile)










Skiing (down hill)










Nordic (4mph)








































Back Stroke










Breast Stroke








































Weight Training










Free weights




















Reference: Eat to Compete. “The Athlete’s Sports Nutrition Program”; Dining Hall and Menu Tips. Pg 1B-1C

Weight Loss and Weight Gain

Weight Loss

            In general, weight is a balance between your calories consumed and calories expended.  The areas that impact this equation include age, height, gender, weight and activity level.  There are occasions when weight loss is appropriate for some athletes; however this should be evaluated by your sports medicine team prior to initiating any weight loss program.

            For the average athlete to lose 1 pound of body weight per week, they would have to deficit 500 calories per day.  This deficit can come from either a decrease in caloric intake and/or an increase in daily activity.  Athletes are better served investing their time and money into safe and effective training and nutrition programs that will promote good health and improved athletic performance.

Weight Gain

            The opposite side of the previous equation is that an additional (approximately) 500 calories per day can result in a weight gain of one pound per week.  However, weight gain strategies can often require more calories than this due to the demands of building structural protein/muscles which require/burn additional calories.  Meaning for every pound of weight gain there will be additional calories required to maintain that pound.  Some keys to gaining weight include: an appropriate strength training regimen, consumption of at least 500-1000 additional calories, adequate carbohydrate consumption, more than 6 meals and snacks per day (never skipping breakfast!!!) and overall consistency.

            When discussing the topic of weight gain, most athletes may think that proteins are the key to weight gain success.  However, carbohydrate balance remains the key to our cellular metabolism and this holds true for successful weight gain.  We know that any excess amount of an energy nutrient (carbohydrate, fat, or protein) will be stored as body fat if not used functionally.  Most all individuals can adequately achieve appropriate protein intakes with their daily intakes.  The energy nutrient most often lacking for appropriate muscle building is the all-important carbohydrate.  Think of proteins as the structural components of the car.  You can have many pieces large and small that create the best car in the world – however; if you do not have gas for the finished engine then your car is not going to work!

Body Composition

            Definitely more important than weight is one’s body composition.  Our weight is made up of three components: lean muscle mass, body fat and body water.  Our body water should be maintained at a level to achieve 50-60% hydration for women and 60-70% hydration for men.  The component of body fat should not be very variable for most segments of the population and is more crucial to maintain a certain level for general body health.  Lastly, lean mass (muscle) is the most variable mass for athletes and will evidently lead to an overall higher weight for athletes than the general population.  However, this “weight” is also associated with an athlete’s speed, power, strength and overall performance.


Optimal Body Composition

                                                Women                                               Men

Essential                                 12-13%                                               3-5%

Healthy                                   17-24%                                               11-15%


References: Lafayette Sports Medicine. “Nutrition Handbook”.

Female Athlete Triad

Disordered Eating/Eating Disorders

            Everyone at one point or another has participated in some form of disordered eating.  This includes skipping breakfast, only eating certain foods or even going on a diet to lose weight.  It means not having a nutritionally balanced diet.  Athletes must be careful to make sure they are getting a balanced diet of nutrients.  Though disordered eating starts out as a small thing for some athletes it can turn into an eating disorder.

            There are two types of eating disorders; anorexia and bulimia.  Anorexia is characterized by rapid and extreme weight loss, distorted body image and intense fear of becoming fat.  An anorexic will resort to excessive exercise, the use of laxatives or diuretics and self-starvation to maintain thinness. 

Bulimia is characterized by uncontrollable food binges followed with purging by self-induced vomiting.  A bulimic may use excessive exercise, laxatives or diuretics or vomiting after meals to decrease the possibility of gaining weight.

Both Anorexia and Bulimia can be life-threatening conditions if untreated.  If you are concerned for yourself or another teammate please contact your coach, team athletic trainer and/or Dr Mark Peluso.  All information will be taken in confidence.



            Amenorrhea is when women stop having regular menstrual periods.  It is characterized by the deficiency of the female hormone estrogen.  Amenorrhea is believed to cause a loss of calcium from the bones and may lead to a higher incidence of stress fractures.  Generally it is caused by poor nutrition and is common among female athletes striving to maintain a body weight lower than what is ideal for her genetic make-up.  All female athletes should keep in mind that amenorrhea is a serious medical problem and if not treated can cause stress type injuries that could keep them from competing.



            If amenorrhea occurs and the production of estrogen is disrupted this can lead to osteoporosis.  Osteoporosis occurs naturally in life as a woman’s level of estrogen decreases during the time of menopause.  In this case, the lack of estrogen causes a sort of early menopause.  This occurs because estrogen is crucial for the deposition of calcium in the bones.


Reversing the Triad

            To reverse the progression of the female athlete triad one can use a combination of the following: decrease overall activity by 10-20%, increase daily nutrient intakes per body needs, use calcium supplementation of 1500mg per day, track menstrual cycles and consulting with your physician.

            If the triad is allowed to progress, and is not reversed in sufficient time, the largest risk factor for female athletes is the development of stress fractures.  Only a bone density scan would determine the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia, the early stages of bone loss.

Eat to Compete. “The Athlete’s Sports Nutrition Program”; Eating Disorders & Amenorrhea: How can you help!. Pg 12A-B


Guidelines For The Use of Sports Foods

Electrolyte Replacement

Characteristics: 6-8% carbohydrates

                       Multiple carbohydrates with high glycemic index

Before Activity: Beneficial to increase glycogen stores; 16 fl oz within one hour of activity

During Activity: 4-8 fl oz every 15-20 minutes

After Activity: 20 fl oz per pound of weight loss


High Carbohydrate Energy Drink

Characteristics: Greater than 13% carbohydrates

                                                Usually supplemented with B-Vitamins

                                                Avoid those with herbs

Before Activity: 16 fl oz 2-5 hours prior to activity

During Activity: Not beneficial due to the need for digestion

After Activity: Immediately after activity as recovery fuel (200-400

calories within one hour after activity)


Sports Bars (Less than 30% protein)

Characteristics: Contain greater than 70% carbohydrates

                                                High glycemic index

                                                Minimal fat content

Before Activity: Efficient at least 2 hours prior to activity

During Activity: Not beneficial due to the need for digestion

After Activity: Efficient as recovery fuel (200-400 calories within one hour after activity)


Supplement Shakes

Characteristics: Contain greater than 60% carbohydrates

                                                High glycemic index

                                                Fat should not exceed 25% of total calories

                                                Protein not to exceed 15-20% of total calories

Before Activity:16fl oz 2-5 hours prior to activity

During Activity: Not beneficial due to the need for digestion

After Activity: Efficient as recovery fuel (200-400 calories within one hour after activity)

Energy Gels

Characteristics: Contain greater than 50% carbohydrates Avoid those with herbs

Before Activity: 1 packet prior to event Consume adequate fluid to ensure absorption

During Activity: Maintain adequate fluid intake; At most, 30-60grams carbohydrates per hour

After Activity: Efficient as recovery fuel (1g per kg body weight) 


American College of Sports Medicine: (317) 637-9200 or

Food and Nutrition Information Center: (301) 504-5719 or

USDA Recommendations and Food Pyramid:

Nutrition Counseling Education Services: (800) 445-5653 or

American Dietetic Association: (312) 899-0040 or

President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports: (202) 690-9000 or

Home of the Glycemic Index (click on GI Database)


Portal Help Line


Health Services
Centeno House
1st & 2nd Floor
Phone: 802.443.5135
Fax: 802.443.2066

Centeno House
3rd Floor
Phone: 802.443.5141
Fax: 802.443.3407

Sports Medicine
Field House
Phone: 802.443.3636
Fax:  802.443.2094