Middlebury

 

 

 

Selected Senior Critical Theses, Fall 2014

Virginia Adams

In the late nineteenth-centrury, the romance adventure novel, invariably featuring a white, male European explorer penetrating unfamiliar, feminized spaces, abounded.  This genre promulgated imperial ideologies of gender and power, placing feminized (and thus inherently inferior) natives under the power of masculine Britain, as represented by the male quest hero.  In his 1924 novel A Passage to India, E.M. Forster interrogates Victorian imperialist ideology, confounding traditional structures of the romance quest novel.  Set in the waning years of imperial vitality, A Passage to India depicts an India that has been fully "discovered" and domesticated to the extent that it is available to English women, as Adela Quested adopts the masculine explorer role.  In addition to displacing English men from their traditional position, the presence of white women in India complicates colonial order, as the homosocial sphere operating under a gendered hierarchy must confront the heterosocial expectations of domestic Victorian England.  Not only does Forster challenge patriarchal appropriations of power; he also offers glimpses of alternatives to this structure, namely in the friendship between Fielding and Aziz.  In a final moment of bathos, however, Forster indicates that such a friendship between England and India is not yet possible, as the very terrain of India as a colonized space pushes the two men apart.  Thus, A Passage to India acknowledges the influence of imperial ideologies even as he criticizes them.

Advisor: Dan Brayton

Benjamin Custer

My thesis will examine the ways in which Franz Kafka's portrayal of totalitarianism and the supernatural reflect the nature of a Judeo-Christian conception of God.  In much of his work, Kafka's protagonists must grapple with forces of complete authority that remain utterly elusive in nature.  Just as the antagonistic menaces in Kafka's work are simultaneously unreachable and unquestionable in their might, so the God of Abraham commands complete, and in many ways terrifying, control over his worshippers despite his conspicuous material absence.  I will closely examine the ways that this similarity reveals itself in four of Kafka's works: The Trial, The Castle, The Judgement, and In the Penal Colony.  Each of these texts grapples with a different aspect of God's relationship to man and, when considered together, they create a complex, disturbing metaphysics for the modern person.

Advisor: Rob Cohen

Luke Greenway

 Place and time are experienced differently in prison.  The very idea of place is involuntarily limited in scope, and time becomes something done to one, rather that something one does things with.  Writing is something that many inmates turn to while in prison, one of the few creative things left to them.  But as in any writing, the experience of the author permeates the prose thematically as well as stylistically.  Given the powerful and inherent nature between the writing and the author's experience, my thesis will interrogate the idea of what prison does to writing and what writing does to those who experience prison, specifically in regards to written creation of place and time.  It will analyze contemporary trends in commercially published prison writing as well as in literary journals that exhibit prison writing.

Advisor: Jay Parini

Margaret Morris

My thesis will explore how female cross-dressing on the early modern stage affects and challenges contemporary homonormative discourses of perfect friendship between men. First, I will argue that by allowing the boy heroine to participate in the metatheatrical instruction of masculinity plays such as Twelfth Night and Ben Jonson’s Epicœne enable the audience to imagine a way in which women can be socialized as boys so as to performatively fulfill the homosocial friendship. I will also argue that the eroticized boy on the stage conjures homoerotic associations that disrupt Montaigne’s non-erotic ideal friendship, suggesting a flexible boundary between the homosocial and the homoerotic. Second, I plan examine the marriage of the boy heroine in As You Like It and The Roaring Girl. I will contend that the ease with which these homosocial (and homoerotic) friendships transform into heterosexual marriage opens up a space for heterosocial relationships within marriage.

Advisor: Marion Wells

Daniel Reed Working Title: The Ape and the Aesthete: Atavism and Decadence in British Popular Fiction at the Fin de Siècle

The second half of the nineteenth-century saw tremendous growth in scientific inquiry into evolution and related theories. As a result, several fears developed regarding potential modes of degeneration of the human race. Two of these that received particular attention were atavism (i.e. “reverse evolution”) and decadence (the decay of proper standards, morals, etc., and the resulting decline towards self-indulgent and hedonistic behavior). My research will examine these and related concepts in several works of popular fiction from fin-de-siècle (“end-of-century”) Britain. Primary sources include Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Wells’s The Time Machine and The Island of Dr. Moreau, Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, and Doyle’s The Hound of the Baskervilles. Through my analysis of these and related secondary sources, I will assess the ways in which these authors interact with the themes of atavism and decadence and consider the complex relationship between popular art and the societal fears that it addresses.

Advisor: Antonia Losano

Sonia Rodrigues Working Title: Mad Women, Silent Women: Exploring Female Madness in The Woman in White and Lady Audley’s Secret

This essay deals with portrayals of female madness in two nineteenth century English novels, Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White and Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s Lady Audley’s Secret. Both novels belong to the sensation genre of literature and follow male protagonists as they uncover secrets about the “mad” women who surround them. Yet in the process, the men in these novels seem to obscure the very women whom they aim to discover, largely through the application of masculinized reason. In relating these counterproductive actions, both novelists destabilize characters’ application of reason to the female mind. This essay will explore how both novelists recast objectivity, manifested specifically through medicine, as an opportunity for male characters not only to invade these women’s privacy but also to reconfigure their identities to fit the definition of “madness.

Advisor: Antonia Losano

Eric Truss

 In my thesis project, I will critically examine two works by the widely regarded titans of twentieth-century American modernist poetry, T.S. Eliot and Robert Frost.  Specifically, I will argue that Frost's missive, "Directive," can and should be read as a direct response to Eliot's monumental work, "The Wasteland." 

Advisor: Jay Parini