Middlebury

 

Roger Sandwick

Professor of Chemistry & Biochemistry

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Phone: work802.443.3496
Office Hours: Spring 2014: Wed: 10:30AM to 11:30AM, Tues/Thurs: 11:00 AM - 12:00PM, and by appointment
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Sandwick Group 2008 The research interests of Team Sandwick are centered on a reaction discovered by French chemist Louis Maillard in 1912 that today bears his name.  Maillard chemistry is a complex series of reactions between amines and proteins that generate a myriad of compounds with a broad array of colors, aromas, and flavors.  The reaction is best known for its importance in generating the brown colors, aromatic flagrances, and roasted tastes that we associate with cooked foods such as breads, meats, and pies.  Well aware of its importance in their products, today's food chemists are highly interested in furthering our understanding of the reaction.  The reaction even has its own dedicated society, the International Maillard Reaction Society, that meets biannually to share information about the reaction.

While not occurring at the rates observed at the high temperature of ovens, the Maillard reaction at physiological temperatures has also proven to be of importance.   Known as protein glycation, this reaction can occur to long-lived proteins such as hemoglobin, collagen, and crystalline.  The scientific community is just starting to understand the ramification of these reactions, with certain pathologies being directly tied to glycation events.   Most research interest has focused on the reaction of the prevalent sugar glucose with blood proteins in conditions of hyperglycemia.  The Sandwick laboratory's interest is in the reaction of an intracellular sugar, ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), with target proteins.  R5P has been shown to be highly more reactive (~ 100 fold) than other common sugars in glycating N-termini, lysines, and arginines of target proteins.  The reaction appears to be capable of producing reactive oxygen species and of cross-linking proteins.  The goal of Team Sandwick is to characterize the glycation reactions of R5P with cellular proteins and to determine if the reaction has significance in in vivo situations.

Click here for Roger Sandwick's CV.

 

Courses

Courses offered in the past four years.
indicates offered in the current term
indicates offered in the upcoming term[s]

CHEM 0103 - General Chemistry I      

General Chemistry I
Major topics will include atomic theory and atomic structure; chemical bonding; stoichiometry; introduction to chemical thermodynamics. States of matter; solutions and nuclear chemistry. Laboratory work deals with testing of theories by various quantitative methods. Students with strong secondary school preparation are encouraged to consult the department chair for permission to elect CHEM 0104 or CHEM 0107 in place of this course. CHEM 0103 is also an appropriate course for a student with little or no prior preparation in chemistry who would like to learn about basic chemical principles while fulfilling the SCI or DED distribution requirement. 3 hrs. lect., 3 hrs. lab, 1 hr. disc.

DED SCI

Spring 2012

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CHEM 0104 - General Chemistry II      

General Chemistry II
Major topics include chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, electrochemistry, descriptive inorganic chemistry, and coordination chemistry. Lab work includes inorganic synthesis, qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis in kinetics, acid-base and redox chemistry. (CHEM 0103 or by waiver) 3 hrs. lect., 3 hrs. lab, 1 hr. disc.

DED SCI

Fall 2010

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CHEM 0313 - Biochemistry Laboratory      

Biochemistry Laboratory
Experimental biochemistry emphasizing the isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes and the cloning of genes and expression of recombinant protein. Traditional biochemical techniques such as UV-VIS spectroscopy, gel filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting will be used in the investigation of several enzymes. Specific experiments will emphasize enzyme purification, enzyme kinetics, and enzyme characterization by biochemical and immunochemical methods. Major techniques in molecular biology will be introduced through an extended experiment that will include DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction, bacterial transformation, DNA sequencing, and the expression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant protein. Class discussions emphasize the underlying principles of the biochemical and molecular techniques employed in the course, and how these experimental tools are improved for particular applications. Laboratory reports stress experimental design, data presentation, and interpretation of results. (CHEM 0322) 2 hr. lect., 6 hrs. lab.

CW

Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2014

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CHEM 0322 - Biochemistry of Macromolecules      

Biochemistry of Macromolecules
This course is an introduction to biochemistry that focuses on the chemical and physical properties of amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Specific topics include the structure and function of proteins, enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, how carbohydrates and lipids contribute to vital cellular and organismal functions, and informational biochemistry (DNA, RNA, and specific enzymes and processes leading to the production of regulatory RNA and proteins). Specific topics from the primary literature will be explored to illustrate how particular techniques and experimental approaches are used to gain a new understanding of biochemistry and molecular biology. (CHEM 0203 or CHEM 0242) 3 hrs. lect., 1 hr. disc.

Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2014

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CHEM 0425 - Biochemistry Of Metabolism      

Biochemistry of Metabolism
A living organism requires thousands of coordinated individual chemical reactions for life. In this course we will survey the major integrated metabolic pathways of living cells and whole organisms, with particular attention to enzyme mechanisms, as well as the regulation, and integration of metabolism from the molecular to the whole organism level. The synthesis and degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides are investigated, along with the mechanisms of energy flow and cell-to-cell communication. While common metabolic processes are emphasized, unique aspects of metabolism that permit cells to function in unusual niches will also be considered. Mechanistic and regulatory aspects of metabolic processes will be reinforced through an investigation of inborn errors and organic defects that lead to disease. (CHEM 0322) 3 hrs. lect., 1 hr. disc.

Fall 2013, Fall 2014

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CHEM 0500 - Independent Study      

Independent Study Project
Individual study for qualified students. (Approval required)

Fall 2010, Winter 2011, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Winter 2012, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Winter 2014, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015

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CHEM 0700 - Senior Research      

Senior Research
In this course students complete individual projects involving laboratory research on a topic chosen by the student and a faculty advisor. Prior to registering for CHEM 0700, a student must have discussed and agreed upon a project topic with a faculty member in the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department. Attendance at all Chemistry and Biochemistry Department seminars is expected. (Approval required; open only to seniors)

Fall 2010, Winter 2011, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Winter 2012, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Winter 2014, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015

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CHEM 0701 - Senior Thesis      

Senior Thesis
Students who have initiated research projects in CHEM 0400 and who plan to complete a senior thesis should register for CHEM 0701. Students are required to write a thesis, give a public presentation, and defend their thesis before a committee of at least three faculty members. The final grade will be determined by the department. Attendance at all Chemistry and Biochemistry Department seminars is expected. (CHEM 0400; approval required)

Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Winter 2014, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015

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FYSE 1406 - Food Battles      

Food Battles: A Critical Look at Food in Our Lives
The development of high yield agricultural practices have allowed people to migrate en masse to cities with the opportunity for different lifestyles. It also meant the birth of “big business food” and some highly unethical practices. In response, the government established the FDA; but does it truly help the health of the nation? In this course we will examine commercial food from field to table, giving special attention to controversies such as genetically modified food, use of pesticides, food additives (including sugar and salt), and animal welfare issues. We will discuss the FDA’s role in safeguarding the public and whether the food industry is anything more than a profit-making business. 3 hrs. sem.

CW SCI

Spring 2014

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MBBC 0700 - Senior Research      

Senior Thesis
Seniors conducting independent study in Molecular Biology and Biochemistry should register for MBBC 0700 unless they are completing a thesis project in which case they should register for MBBC 0701. (Approval required).

Winter 2011, Spring 2011, Winter 2012, Spring 2012, Winter 2013, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Winter 2014, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015

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MBBC 0701 - Senior Thesis      

Senior Thesis
Students conducting independent thesis research in Molecular Biology and Biochemistry must register for MBBC 0701 while completing research projects initiated in BIOL 0500, MBBC 0700, or CHEM 0400. Students will organize and lead regular discussions of their research and research methods, and attend weekly meetings with their designated laboratory group to foster understanding of their special area, and practice the stylistic and technical aspects of scientific writing needed to write their thesis. (CHEM 0400 or BIOL 0500 or MBBC 0700) (Approval required).

Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Winter 2014, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015

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Recent Fellowships, Grants and Awards

American Chemical Society-Petroleum Research Fund "A Characterization of the Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Reaction of Ribose 5-Phosphate and Amino Acids" ($50,000) 09/1/06 - 8/31/09

NIH-NCRR-INBRE VGN Program "The Maillard Reaction between Ribose 5-Phosphate and Cellular Amines" ($71,666) 06/01/05 - 05/01/06

NIH-NCRR-BRIN VGN Program "The Maillard and Amadori Reactions of Ribose 5-Phosphate" ($10,000) 5/15/04 - 6/30/04

NIH-NCRR-BRIN VGN Program "A Stability Study of Phosphoribosamine" ($7,800) 5/15/04 - 6/30/04

Departmental Technology Initiatives Project, "Improvement of Computerized Data Analysis in Introductory Chemistry Laboratories", Director, ($59,257) 2001 - 2002

The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, "Chemistry Outreach to a Rural Area", PI, ($30,000) 2001 - 2002

Dwight D. Eisenhower Title IIA Higher Education Grant, "Northern New York K-6 Inquiry-Based Math/Science/Technology Framework Initiative" Project Director (with J. Haubner), ($36,670)1998 - 1999

Redcay Teaching Enhancement Award "Development of Thematic Approach For Teaching a Science Course to Non-Science Majors" with Dr. Dan Vogt, ($5000)1998 - 1999

Dwight D. Eisenhower Title IIA Higher Education Grant, "Collaborative Science Education for the North Country (CSENC)", Co-Director, ($34,000) 1998 - 1999

Dwight D. Eisenhower Title IIA Higher Education Grant, "Northern New York K-6 Inquiry-Based Math/Science/Technology Framework Initiative" Project Director (with J. Haubner), ($36,670)1997 - 1998

Dwight D. Eisenhower Title IIA Higher Education Grant, "Collaborative Science Education for the North Country (CSENC)", Co-Director, ($40,000)1997 - 1998

Phi Kappa Phi Distinguished Member Award 1998

 

Recent Publications

Choi S, Vastag L, Larrabee YC, Personick ML, Schaberg KB, Fowler BJ, Sandwick RK, Rawji G. (2008) "Importance of platinum(II)-assisted platinum(IV) substitution for the oxidation of guanosine derivatives by platinum(IV) complexes" Inorg. Chem. 47, 1352 - 1360

 

Munanairi, A., O'Banion, S., Gamble, R., Breuer, E., Harris, A.W., and Sandwick, R.K. (2007) "The multiple Maillard reactions of ribose and deoxyribose sugars and sugar phosphates" Carbohydrate Research, 343, 2575 - 2592

 

Sandwick, R., Johanson, M. and Breuer, E. (2005) "Maillard Reactions of Ribose 5-Phosphate and Amino Acids" in The Maillard Reaction: Chemistry at the Interface of Nutrition, Aging, and Disease, Baynes, J., Monnier, V.M., Ames, J.M., and Thorpe, S.R. (eds), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, Vol. 1043, 85 - 96

Meola,M, Yamen,B., Weaver,K., and Sandwick,RK. (2003) "The Catalytic Effect of Mg2+ and Imidazole on the Decomposition of 5-Phosphoribosyl-a-1-pyrophosphate in Aqueous Solution" J. Inorg. Biochem., 93, 235 - 242

Dennis, A., Puskas, M., Stasaitis, S., and Sandwick, R.K. (2000) "The Formation of a 1-5 Phosphodiester Linkage in the Spontaneous Breakdown of 5-Phosphoribosyl-a-1-Pyrophosphate", J. Inorg. Biochem., 81, 73 - 80