Research Interests: Mongolian history, 13th century to the present; Sino-Mongolian and Russo-Mongolian relations.

Books and selected articles:

Mongolia 1978-2017: Memoirs of a Part-Time Mongolist (Shires Press, 2019).

A History of Land Use in Mongolia: the Thirteenth Century to the Present (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2012).

Pages from the Past: The 1910 Moscow Trade Expedition to Mongolia (EastBridge, 2007).

The Modernization of Inner Asia (coauthor) (M.E. Sharpe, 1991).

Mongolian Rule in China: Local Administration in the Yuan Dynasty (Harvard University Press, 1989).

“The Persistence of Pastoral Nomadism,” in Ts. Ishdorzh, ed., Essays on Mongol Studies (2005).

“The Mongols and China: Cultural Contacts and the Changing Nature of Pastoral Nomadism (Twelfth to Early Twentieth Centuries)”, in Amitai and Biran, eds., Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World (2005).

“The Yuan Government and Society,” in Franke and Twitchett, ed.s, Cambridge History of China, Vol. VI (1994)

“Merchant Associations in Yuan China: the Ortogh,” Asia Major (1989).