Immediate Safety and Support

  • Go to a safe place: your room/residence, a friend’s room/residence, or anywhere you will feel safe. If your safety is in immediate jeopardy, either call the police +598 2030 2000 or go directly to the nearest police station (“comisaría”) to report a sexual assault incident. 
  • If you want to be accompanied to the police station and then to the hospital, please call the Middlebury School in Uruguay’s Assistant Director, Sylvia Murninkas, at +598 99923407 (cellphone). 
  • The Uruguayan government provides assistance by calling (both free):

    * 08004141 (landline)

    * 4141 (mobile phones)
  • To file a complaint you must go to the Seccional Policial de Violencia Doméstica, which is open 24 hours. The address is San José 1126. From there it is derived to the court in order to set the measures to be taken in each case.
  • We encourage you to contact someone you trust: no matter how late it is, you should not be alone. Call Sylvia, a close friend, or someone from your homestay.

Medical Care

  • We encourage you to seek immediate medical attention, even if you’re not sure if you have any physical injuries. At the emergency room, you may be treated for injuries, tested and treated for sexually transmitted infections, and women may be tested for pregnancy; however, unless you decide to file a report and/or press charges with the police, no rape evidence collection procedure will take place.
  • While in Montevideo, you should go to the Sanatorio Americano, located in Dr. Isabelino Bosch 2466.
  • If the incident occurred within the last 24 hours, if possible, try to preserve any evidence before your medical exam by not washing or changing clothes, brushing teeth or hair, eating, or taking other actions that might compromise evidence. Even if more time has passed, it may still be possible to collect evidence, and it is certainly possible to receive medical care and testing.  Collecting evidence in no way obligates you to make a report to Middlebury or file a complaint with local law enforcement authorities, but it preserves this information in the event that you decide to do either of those things, or seek a protection order, at a later date.
  • Should you choose not to report the crime to the police, we still highly encourage you to seek medical attention; go to the nearest hospital or a local doctor or local family planning center.

Mental Health Counseling, Advocacy, and Other Support Services

  • We encourage you to consider talking with a confidential counselor.  You have complete control over what information you do or do not choose to share.  You may or may not feel ready to talk about what happened, but in either case, counselors can provide a confidential and safe space to explore any feelings or challenges that have arisen for you after your experience. They can also provide you with information and support as you consider your needs, and can help you to connect with other resources, such as a victim’s advocate or counselor.
  • The Middlebury School in Uruguay can put you in touch with a psychologist/psychiatrist if you feel the need to do so.
  • Contacting one or more of these or other confidential resources in no way precludes you from also choosing to make a report or a formal complaint with Middlebury or with local law enforcement.  More information on making a report or filing a formal complaint with Middlebury and/or local law enforcement can be found below. 

Protection Order

In Uruguay, a Protection Order or “restricción de acercamiento” is rendered by civil judges; its duration is mandated by the judge and can be renewed if necessary. The “restricción de acercamiento” is issued to urgently protect victims of domestic violence who provide evidence establishing the likely nature of the danger and violent behaviors. They rarely apply to victims of all forms of interpersonal violence, unless you provide proof of being stalked after the initial incident. To have access to a protection order, it’s mandatory to have reported the sexual violence incident to the police beforehand.

A victim of dating violence, and not domestic violence, also has the right to request these measures provided that they can prove that they and the accused party were in a relationship.

Preserving Evidence

In addition to trying to preserve any of the physical evidence referenced above (“Medical Care”), you may want to preserve all evidence related to an incident or incidents, including any electronic information, text messages, social media posts, phone records, emails, clothing, or other documentation or materials. Even if you don’t wish to pursue a complaint with Middlebury or local law enforcement or seek an order of protection at this time, it may be a good idea to preserve the evidence in a safe place in case you change your mind at a later date. You may also want to consider writing down and preserving all of the details you remember about your experience(s), as well as the names of individuals you believe may possess relevant information and/or evidence.


As you consider your choices and resources, you may have concerns about maintaining your privacy. Middlebury will handle information in a sensitive manner and will endeavor to protect your privacy to the extent we can do so and still meet our obligations to respond to reports of sexual misconduct, domestic and dating violence, stalking, and/or related retaliation. Although the Clery Act (a federal statute) requires Middlebury to report annually the number of sexual misconduct, dating and domestic violence, and stalking reports we receive, and to issue public campus warnings as appropriate, Middlebury will not include the names of complainants or other personally identifying information in either disclosure. However, if there is an independent investigation, lawsuit, or criminal proceeding related to sexual misconduct, domestic or dating violence, stalking, or related retaliation, those involved or others may be required by law to provide testimony or documents (e.g., reports, witness statements, and any other information gathered or obtained by Middlebury in a particular matter).


You may want clarification about which resources are confidential (individuals who are legally and ethically bound to keep confidential all information shared with them in the course of providing counsel and support, except under certain unusual circumstances), and which resources are not (individuals who are required to report any incident they learn of that may involve sexual misconduct, domestic or dating violence, or stalking to an HRO or the Civil Rights and Title IX Coordinator).

  • Confidential Resources: In general, communications between a person seeking care and a medical or mental health professional, religious advisor, or trained sexual assault advocate are confidential. The medical, mental health, and religious professionals at Middlebury, and their off-campus counterparts, respect and protect confidential communications from students, faculty, and staff to the extent they are legally able to do so. These professionals may have to breach a confidence, however, when they perceive a serious risk of danger or threat to any person or property. They may also be required by law to report certain crimes (e.g., any allegation of sexual or physical abuse of a person under 18).
  • Nonconfidential Resources:  All faculty and staff members, including residential life staff and ombudspersons, who are not medical or counseling professionals, or clergy, are not permitted to honor requests for confidentiality. Nonconfidential faculty or staff who learn of an incident of alleged sexual misconduct, domestic or dating violence, stalking, or related retaliation involving a student are required to report that information to an HRO or the Civil Rights and Title IX Coordinator, all of whom are responsible for ensuring that individuals who may have experienced this prohibited conduct receive information about their rights, resources, and support options.

Reporting to Law Enforcement

You also have the right to report the incident to law enforcement and/or seek a protective order from a court (or to choose not to do so). These options are available to you regardless of whether you choose to file a complaint with Middlebury. If you would like to request such assistance or would just like to learn more about these options, please contact the Director  ( or the Associate Director ( of the School in Uruguay.

Informal Resolution Options

Informal resolution is a voluntary option that does not involve a hearing process or other determination about whether or not a violation of Middlebury policy occurred. At any time prior to reaching a determination regarding responsibility, Middlebury may facilitate an informal resolution process where requested by one party and agreed to by the other party. If a party requests the initiation of an informal resolution process and the Civil Rights and Title IX Coordinator agrees that the matter is appropriate for informal resolution, both parties will be given information about Middlebury’s informal resolution options.

A party may withdraw from the informal resolution process at any time prior to their execution of a written informal resolution agreement. After a final informal resolution is agreed to in writing between the parties, neither party may initiate a formal resolution process regarding substantially the same factual allegations. Agreement to participate in an informal resolution does not prevent you from filing a complaint with the police.

Contact Information for Reporting:

Sexual Violence Resources and Information in Uruguay

For individuals of all gender identities:

  • The Middlebury School in Uruguay team:
    • Director of the School in Uruguay: Claudio González Chiaramonte, 11 41 80 27 05
    • Assistant Director of the School in Uruguay: Sylvia Murninkas, 99 923 407
  • Pathways to Safety International: for confidential and inclusive sexual assault services (information, support, and referral) through email at for people of all genders and sexuality, LGBTQIA inclusive. They will reply to email within 72h.
  • GeoBlue International Health Insurance: for a detailed list of professional resources (psychiatrists, psychologists, etc.) in Montevideo and major cities in Uruguay.

There are several additional resources available for female and LGBTQI+- identified indivudals:

Legal Resources

U.S. Embassy in Uruguay’s Citizen Services:

Definitions of crimes

In Middlebury’s efforts to obtain and provide definitions of the following crimes or terms, e.g., Sexual Assault, Dating Violence, Domestic Violence, Stalking, and Consent in reference to sexual activity, which are prohibited by Middlebury’s Policy and which may also be prohibited by law in Uruguay, listed below please find some or all of the crimes or terms as locally defined by Uruguay to the extent known by Middlebury on information and belief at this time.

English follows Spanish below.

Delitos Sexuales de acuerdo al Código Penal Uruguayo

Sexual Offenses under the Uruguayan Penal Code

Violación (Artículo 272)

Comete violación el que compele a una persona del mismo o de distinto sexo, con violencias y amenazas a sufrir la conjunción carnal (relaciones sexuales), aunque el acto no llegara a consumarse.

Se presume la violencia cuando la conjunción carnal se efectúa:

1.    Con persona del mismo o diferente sexo, menor de quince años. No obstante, se admitirá prueba en contrario cuando la víctima tuviere doce años cumplidos;

2.    Con persona que, por causas congénitas o adquiridas, permanentes o transitorias, se halla, en el momento de la ejecución del acto, privada de discernimiento o voluntad;

3.    Con persona arrestada o detenida, siempre que el culpable resulte ser el encargado de su guarda o custodia;

4.    Con fraude, sustituyéndose el culpable a otra persona.

Este delito se castiga, según los casos, con penitenciaría de dos a doce años.

Rape (Article 272)

Anyone who, using violence or threats, forces a person of the same or opposite sex to engage in intercourse (sexual relations), even if the act is not consummated, is guilty of rape.

Violence is presumed when the intercourse takes place:

1.    With a person of the same or opposite sex who is under the age of fifteen years. However, evidence to the contrary shall be allowed when the victim is twelve years of age or older;

2.    With a person who, due to congenital or acquired causes, whether permanent or temporary, is deprived of judgment or will at the time the act is carried out;

3.    With a person under arrest or detention, provided the offender is responsible for guarding or maintaining custody of such person;

4.    With fraud by pretending to be another person.

This offense is punishable by a prison term of two to twelve years, depending on the individual case.

Significado de “Consentimiento”

El término “consentimiento” en el ámbito de los delitos sexuales, significa aceptar o asentir libre y voluntariamente a mantener relaciones sexuales. Una expresión de falta de consentimiento mediante palabras o conductas específicas significa que no hay consentimiento del individuo.

La falta de resistencia verbal o física, o la sumisión que resultare del uso de violencias, amenaza de violencias, o del miedo causado a un individuo, no constituye consentimiento. Un individuo dormido, inconsciente, o privado de discernimiento o voluntad no puede dar su consentimiento. Un individuo no puede consentir el uso de violencias que causen o pudiesen causar lesiones, un estado inconsciente o la muerte.

Meaning of “Consent”

The term “consent,” in the context of sex offenses, means accepting or agreeing, freely and voluntarily, to have sexual relations. Any expression by specific words or conduct indicating a lack of consent means that the individual has not given consent.

An individual’s lack of verbal or physical resistance or submission to the act as a result of fear, violence or the threat of violence, does not constitute consent. An individual who is asleep, unconscious or deprived of judgment or will cannot give consent. An individual cannot consent to the use of violence that causes or may cause injury, unconsciousness or death.

Atentado violento al pudor (Artículo 273)

Comete atentado violento al pudor, el que, mediante violencias y amenazas (y por lo tanto sin consentimiento), realizara sobre persona del mismo o diferente sexo, actos obscenos, diversos de la conjunción carnal, u obtuviera que ésta realizare dichos actos sobre sí mismo o sobre la persona del culpable o de un tercero.

Este delito se castiga con la pena de la violación, disminuida de un tercio a la mitad.

Violent Molestation (Article 273)

Anyone who, using violence or threats (and therefore acts without obtaining consent), performs lewd acts other than sexual intercourse upon a person of the same or opposite sex, or causes such person to perform lewd acts upon himself or herself or upon the offender, is guilty of violent molestation.

This offense is punishable by one third to one half of the prison term imposed for rape.

Estupro (Artículo 275)

Comete estupro el que, mediante promesa de matrimonio, mantuviere relaciones sexuales con una mujer doncella menor de veinte años y mayor de quince.

Comete estupro igualmente, el que, mediante simulación de matrimonio, efectuare dichos actos con mujer doncella mayor de veinte años.

El estupro se castiga con pena que puede oscilar desde seis meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría.

Unlawful Sex with a Minor (Article 275)

Anyone who, upon promise of matrimony, engages in sexual relations with a virgin female less than twenty and more than fifteen years of age, is guilty of unlawful sex with a minor.

Anyone who, upon simulating marriage, engages in sexual relations with a virgin female more than twenty years of age, is also guilty of unlawful sex with a minor.

Unlawful sex with a minor is punishable by a prison term ranging from six months to three years.

Rapto de mujer soltera mayor de dieciocho años, viuda o divorciada honesta (Artículo 266)

Este delito lo comete el que, con violencia, amenazas o engaños, sustrajere o retuviere, para satisfacer una pasión carnal o contraer matrimonio, a una mujer soltera, mayor de dieciocho años, a una viuda o a una divorciada, honestas, cualquiera fuera su edad.

Este delito será castigado con pena de doce meses de prisión a cinco años de penitenciaría.

Kidnapping a Reputable Single Woman Older than Eighteen Years of Age or a Reputable Divorcee or Widow (Article 266)

Anyone who, by means of violence, threat or deceit, absconds with or confines a reputable single woman over the age of eighteen years, or a reputable divorcee or widow of any age, for the purpose of satisfying carnal passion or of joining in matrimony, is guilty of this offense.

This offense is punishable by a term of not less than twelve months in jail or more than five years in prison.

Rapto de mujer casada o menor de 15 años (Artículo 267)

Este delito lo comete el que, con violencias, amenazas o engaños, sustrae o retiene, para satisfacer una pasión carnal a una mujer casada.

El presente delito será castigado con penitenciaría de dos a ocho años.

Con la misma pena será castigado el que sustrae o retiene para satisfacer una pasión carnal o para contraer matrimonio, aunque no mediare violencia, amenaza o engaño, a una menor de quince años.

Kidnapping a Married Woman or a Female under the Age of 15 Years (Article 267)

Anyone who, by means of violence, threat or deceit, absconds with or confines a married woman for the purpose of satisfying carnal passion or of joining in matrimony is guilty of this offense.

This offense is punishable by a prison term of two to eight years.

The same penalty shall be imposed upon anyone who, for the purpose of satisfying a carnal passion or of joining in matrimony, absconds with or confines a female under the age of fifteen years, without violence, threats or deceit.

Incesto (Artículo 276)

Cometen incesto los que, mediando un escándalo público, mantienen relaciones sexuales con los ascendientes legítimos y los padres naturales reconocidos o declarados tales, con los descendientes legítimos y los hijos naturales reconocidos o declarados tales, y con los hermanos legítimos.

Este delito será castigado con seis meses de prisión a cinco años de penitenciaría.

Incest (Article 276)

Anyone who, causing a public scandal, has sexual relations with his or her legitimate ascendant or biological parent recognized or declared as such, with his or her legitimate descendants or biological child recognized or declared as such, or with his or her legitimate sibling, is guilty of incest.

This offense is punishable by term of not less than six months in jail or more than five years in prison.

Ultraje público al pudor (Artículo 277)

Comete ultraje al pudor el que, en lugar público o expuesto al público, ejecutare actos obscenos o pronunciare discursos de análogo carácter.

Este delito será castigado con tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría.

Lewd Disturbance of the Peace (Article 277)

Anyone who, in a public place or in public view, carries out lewd acts or engages in similar speech is guilty of lewd disturbance of the peace.

This offense is punishable by a term of not less than three months in jail or more than three years in prison.

Violencia Doméstica

La violencia domestica la puede sufrir cualquier individuo, incluyendo un cónyuge o  ex cónyuge, pareja, persona con la cual la víctima comparte un hijo, o un concubino.

Sin perjuicio de que la violencia doméstica no esté considerada como delito bajo el Código Penal Uruguayo, hay ciertas medidas cautelares y de protección que pueden ser decretadas por los juzgados especializados en la materia, como por ejemplo, una orden judicial de restricción o una orden judicial  de desalojo (es decir, orden judicial de retiro del agresor del hogar).

Domestic Violence

Any individual may be a victim of domestic violence, including a spouse or ex-spouse, domestic partner, co-parent or romantic partner.

Although domestic violence is not considered a crime in the Uruguayan Penal Code, judges specializing in such matters may issue precautionary or protective measures, such as restraining orders or move-out orders (that is, requiring a perpetrator to vacate the residence).

Acoso Sexual

El acoso sexual únicamente ha sido considerado por la legislación uruguaya en el ámbito de las relaciones laborales.

Ciertas penas correspondientes a delitos previstos en el Código Penal pueden ser aplicadas en casos de acoso sexual, dependiendo del caso concreto.

Sexual Harassment

Uruguayan law addresses sexual harassment only in the context of labor relations.

Certain penalties corresponding to offenses defined in the Penal Code may be imposed in cases of sexual harassment, depending on the facts of the case.