Last Updated October 2020
Charges and Evidence
Disposition Without Hearing
The Conduct Judicial Board and the Judicial Appeals Board
Unofficial MIIS Discipline
Official MIIS Discipline
I. Introduction to MIIS’ Student Discipline Process
MIIS strives to balance individual growth with community health and growth, through our community expectations and general conduct standards for students, and the student discipline procedures that enforce general conduct expectations. Our discipline processes are intended to be educational, first and foremost. Where other MIIS policies specify separate procedures, those procedures will apply.
The Conduct Judicial Board’s enforcement of MIIS policies is under the oversight of the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Dean of the Institute (VPAA/DOI) and the Associate Dean of Student Services (ADSS). The ADSS is responsible for disseminating information on our academic honesty and general conduct policies and for establishing appropriate investigation, adjudication, and appeal procedures for the Board. These procedures are published online at go.miis.edu/studentpolicies. Suggested revisions may be submitted to the ADSS and/or the VPAA/DOI at any time, although revisions are ordinarily implemented during the summer.
Concerns about student behavior should be shared with the ADSS as a starting point, although the ADSS may refer specific behaviors to other processes, for example the TIX Investigation & Resolutions Procedure or the Non-Discrimination Investigations & Resolutions Procedure. The ADSS administers the disciplinary procedures for both academic conduct and general conduct. Concerns about academic integrity as well as non-academic student behavior should first be directed to the ADSS, unless they involve discrimination, in which case they should be directed first to the Civil Rights/Title IX Coordinator.
Conduct matters may be resolved in several ways. Conduct issues where the relevant facts are not in dispute will ordinarily be resolved through a Disposition without Hearing and the recommended assignment of a sanction from the ADSS. If a student is assigned a sanction of official discipline, they may appeal that sanction to the VPAA/DOI or Dean. For conduct issues where the facts are disputed, a hearing will be held before the Conduct Judicial Board. The Board will determine the facts and make a recommendation regarding sanction to the ADSS. Procedures for Conduct Judicial Board hearings are outlined below.
When possible and appropriate, restorative justice may be available for both academic and non-academic issues.
a. Applicability of These Procedures
Students will be held accountable for policy violations that take place between the time they first arrive on campus to begin their MIIS program and their graduation, or the Institute’s confirmation of their withdrawal or resignation. A student respondent will not be permitted to graduate from or otherwise be deemed to have officially completed a MIIS program in which they are enrolled while a disciplinary matter is pending.
b. Administrative Resolution
In certain circumstances, the VPAA/DOI has discretion to charge an appropriate Dean or the ADSS to adjudicate a matter. Such circumstances may include adjudicating a matter with compelling privacy interests, such as a case of sexual exploitation, or an alleged violation of an active No Contact Order after the conclusion of a sexual misconduct, domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking (SMDVS) investigation, or adjudicating an alleged academic conduct violation during the summer when there are compelling circumstances, etc. While the adjudication process will be tailored to the circumstances of the matter, it will adhere to the principle of fundamental fairness for the parties involved. In these cases, the VPAA/DOI or ADSS may also adjust the sanctioning and appellate authority, as necessary.
c. No Contact Orders
When a verbal or physical altercation, sexual misconduct, stalking, harassment, discrimination, retaliation, or hazing has been alleged, or when otherwise deemed appropriate under the circumstances, the VPAA/DOI, ADSS, Human Relations Officers (HROs), and the Civil Rights/Title IX coordinator have the authority to issue No Contact Orders to the persons involved, whether or not disciplinary action is taken. A No Contact Order is used to restrict encounters between individuals. While a No Contact Order is not a disciplinary sanction, and will not appear on a student’s disciplinary record, refusal to adhere to the order after written or verbal notification of its terms is prohibited and may result in disciplinary action.
d. Legal Proceedings and Legal Counsel
MIIS’ disciplinary action is distinct from and not dependent upon the outcome of any legal proceedings involving a student, although conduct that forms the basis for legal proceedings may also warrant disciplinary action by MIIS, and conviction of a crime may in itself justify disciplinary action.
Individual students may pursue criminal or civil legal action or be required to respond to it. While students are enrolled in any MIIS program, they must inform MIIS if they are charged with a felony by state or federal authorities. Failure to do so may itself result in disciplinary action.
MIIS endeavors to provide general supports to students involved in personal legal proceedings but has no role to play in such actions and may not interfere in them. MIIS officials and other students may, like all persons, be compelled to give testimony or evidence if subject to the subpoena power of a court.
e. Cooperation and Honesty
Consistent with MIIS’ core requirement of honesty and cooperation, students are expected to cooperate in all disciplinary proceedings, be honest and straightforward in their participation, and provide accurate information. The provision of false or misleading information to the ADSS or the Conduct Judicial Board may itself be grounds for disciplinary action. Deliberate violations of this provision are considered serious offenses.
f. Principles of Fundamental Fairness
MIIS’ discipline procedures are driven by our commitment to fundamental fairness. Among the considerations weighed by the ADSS in establishing these procedures are: (1) ensuring that MIIS’ conduct expectations are reasonable, (2) ensuring that students have reasonable notice (they know or should have known) about the conduct expectations, (3) providing that disciplinary procedures are carried out by individuals who are properly trained and authorized to act, (4) utilizing procedures that result in outcomes based on meaningful evidence, and (5) ensuring that students have notice of the charges against them, as well as an opportunity to present evidence, and (6) providing for appeals in processes that result in a sanction of official discipline.
The Institute is not a court of law, and our disciplinary proceedings have as their fundamental goal education, rather than criminal punishment or compensation. MIIS does not have the power to subpoena evidence or place witnesses under oath, and procedures are therefore necessarily different from a civil or criminal legal proceeding. However, the procedures outlined below and in the TIX Investigations and Resolutions Procedure, and the Non-Discrimination Investigations and Resolutions Procedure, are designed to provide fundamental fairness and to protect students from arbitrary or capricious disciplinary action. All disciplinary authorities of MIIS, including conduct judicial board members, deans and Human Relations Officers conduct their proceedings in the spirit of these principles. If exceptional circumstances dictate variation from these procedures, the variation will not invalidate a decision unless it prevented fundamental fairness.
a. Concerns regarding student behavior may be brought to the ADSS by any individual, whether or not they are a member of the MIIS community.
b. A faculty member who believes a student has engaged in academic dishonesty shall submit a written statement of the facts supporting the charge to the ADSS. The faculty member’s statement will serve as the formal presentation of charges to the Conduct Judicial Board, and therefore should be sufficiently detailed to enable all parties to respond and prepare for the hearing, if necessary.
c. The ADSS may conduct an initial inquiry into the concern to determine whether to bring charges against a student. This inquiry may include gathering evidence, including statements from witnesses and documentary evidence, as well as other steps to understand the issue.
d. The ADSS may have an investigative report prepared, for example by Campus Security, ITS, or other individuals, as appropriate.
e. The ADSS will ordinarily notify the student with a written statement of the charges being considered and explain how the student may provide information for consideration.
f. Formal or legal rules of evidence do not apply in MIIS disciplinary proceedings. The ADSS is responsible for administering procedures to ensure they are based on meaningful evidence. If a hearing occurs, the chair will make decisions on evidentiary or procedural questions that must be resolved during the hearing. The majority of the Board may override the chair’s decision if they disagree.
a. After written notice of the concern or charges against them, and the student’s opportunity to provide evidence, the ADSS will determine whether there are disputed facts at issue.
b. At any time, a student respondent may notify the ADSS that they do not contest the charges and the ADSS may issue a sanction appropriate to the violation.
c. Where there are no disputed facts at issue, the ADSS will issue a sanction appropriate to the violation.
d. If the student objects to a sanction other than official discipline, they may submit a statement of their objection within three days to the ADSS. The ADSS and the VPAAD/DOI shall discuss the sanction and the student’s objection and provide a written explanation of a decision to retain or adjust the sanction if appropriate.
e. If the sanction is a form of official discipline the respondent may appeal the determination of responsibility to the VPAA/DOI as described below.
The judicial system at MIIS consists of two judicial bodies. Any member of a judicial body who has a conflict of interest in a particular proceeding is disqualified from sitting on that case. If a member of the Conduct Judicial Board or the Judicial Appeals Board is disqualified, normally an alternate member from the same constituency will be selected to participate.
1. Conduct Judicial Board
The Conduct Judicial Board normally adjudicates allegations of significant non-academic and academic conduct infractions.
If the Conduct Judicial Board cannot be convened because MIIS is in recess for the summer or J-term, a student responding to allegations of a disciplinary offense may choose to have the matter resolved through the Disposition without Hearing process, or to postpone a hearing until the Conduct Judicial Board can be convened in the fall or spring. A student who chooses to postpone a hearing under these circumstances and who is subsequently suspended for the fall or spring semester, or expelled, will receive a full reimbursement of tuition and all MIIS fees for that semester.
Conduct violations that do not fall under our Non-Discrimination Policy and that occur during our Summer Intensive Language Program (SILP), or one of our intensive English language programs, will be handled according to the conduct policies and procedures established for the relevant program.
For the purposes of a non-academic allegation hearing, the Conduct Judicial Board will consist of five members: one staff member, one faculty member, and three students. For the purposes of an academic allegation hearing, the composition of the Board will consist of two student members, two faculty members and a staff member. The ADSS will determine who serves as the chair. Each member has one vote. To accommodate conflicts of interest, scheduling and to help ensure continuity from one year to the next, every effort will be made to have up to four staff members, four faculty members, and five to seven students selected or appointed to rotate service at Conduct Judicial Board hearings. Whenever possible, staff and faculty appointments will be for two academic years.
MIIS’ VPAA/DOI will appoint the staff representatives to the board based on the application submissions facilitated by the Staff Advisory Committee. The Academic Policy, Standards, & Instruction Committee (APSIC) will appoint two faculty members, serving as APSIC reps, to the board for academic-related conduct issues. The Faculty Senate will appoint two faculty members for non-academic related conduct issues. The student members will be selected by the procedure described below.
A student must be a full-time, degree-seeking student, in good academic standing with a minimum 3.0 GPA, to serve on the Conduct Judicial Board. A student found responsible for a serious academic or non-academic infraction of MIIS rules by any MIIS judicial authority will be ineligible for membership.
The selection committee is encouraged to assemble a board of student members who reflect the diversity of MIIS’ student population in all areas. Whenever possible, at least one student member will have at least one semester of prior experience serving on the Conduct Judicial Board. The ADSS will review the continued eligibility of a student member of the Conduct Judicial Board who has been found to have committed a serious infraction of MIIS rules and has the authority to require the member to resign.
In the spring semester, a selection committee will be convened and led by the ADSS and will include, whenever possible, one staff member, one faculty member, and at least two members of the Student Council. This selection committee will be responsible for advertising the availability of student positions on the Conduct Judicial Board; collecting nominations from the student body; confirming their eligibility; interviewing nominees; and selecting the finalists.
iii. Substitution of Members
If there is a need to convene the Conduct Judicial Board and regular members cannot attend a hearing, alternates to the Conduct Judicial Board will be contacted. If for any reason a member of the Conduct Judicial Board has a conflict of interest in a particular proceeding, a replacement will be sought from among the alternate members
Conduct Judicial Board hearings may not be conducted with fewer than four members. Three votes are needed for a finding of responsibility for a policy violation. In the event of a finding of responsibility for a policy violation, recommended sanctions shall be determined by majority vote.
2. Judicial Appeals Board
The Judicial Appeals Board has jurisdiction, to hear appeals of decisions of the Conduct Judicial Board under certain circumstances.
The Judicial Appeals Board consists of five members: a member of the academic administration, appointed by VPAA/DOI, who serves as chair; two faculty board members who did not participate in the original hearing; and two student board members who did not participate in the original hearing. Each member has one vote.
An attempt will be made to select student and faculty members who did not hear the original case; however, issues of conflict of interest or availability may dictate selecting members at the discretion of the VPAA/DOI.
iii. Substitution of Members
If there is a need to convene the Judicial Appeals Board when both regular and alternate members are unavailable, the administrative chair and/or the VPOI/DOI may appoint substitute members. Priority will be given to students and faculty with judicial experience. If for any reason a member of the Judicial Appeals Board has a conflict of interest in a particular proceeding, a replacement will be appointed.
Judicial Appeals Board hearings may not be conducted with fewer than four members, at least one of whom is a student, present. In the event of a finding of responsibility for a policy violation, recommended sanctions shall be determined by majority vote.
i. The ADSS administers hearings, including but not limited to assisting in scheduling, identifying and approving witnesses, providing required notice to parties, witnesses and Board members, identifying and preparing materials to be reviewed by the Board, and offering access to those materials to the parties. the ADSS or designee must be present during deliberations of the Board and may provide procedural advice to the Board, to ensure consistency and equity. The ADSS or designee serves as secretary to the Board, to formally record factual findings and recommendations of the Board regarding sanction. Hearings and all Board deliberations are confidential.
ii. The burden of proof rests on MIIS to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the charged conduct occurred.
iii. Accused students will be provided with access to the charge statement, if applicable, and all related materials that will be shared with the Board, in advance of a hearing.
iv. Normally, a hearing will be scheduled at least two weeks after the charge statement has been provided to the student. Participants will be notified of the date, time, and location of the hearing at least two business days before the hearing.
v. The responding student will be notified in advance of the identity of any complainant as well as any witnesses who will attend the hearing.
vi. All written evidence intended to be introduced at the hearing must be provided to the chair of the board prior to the commencement of the hearing. The chair reserves the right not to consider written evidence not provided in advance.
vii. In academic honesty cases, the faculty member initiating charges shall participate in the hearing to explain the charges and to ask and answer questions.
viii. Attendance: The respondent, complainant, and all required witnesses are expected to be present at the time and place of the scheduled hearing. Normally, participation in or attendance at judicial hearings shall be limited to students and employees of MIIS, unless another person can offer directly relevant testimony, which must be approved by the ADSS. Failure to appear at a scheduled hearing after proper notice may subject a student to disciplinary penalties up to and including suspension. Judicial proceedings take precedence over academic and nonacademic activities, and students shall be excused from other obligations to participate in the proceedings. Should a respondent who has been properly charged and notified of a scheduled hearing fail to appear, the hearing may proceed, and sanctions may be imposed as if the respondent were present.
ix. Hearings will be recorded, which recording is the property of MIIS. In the event of an appeal, the recording will be made available to the respondent and the appellate authority. The respondent must return copies of the recording after filing their appeal; recordings may not be used for any other purposes. Recordings will be retained for an appropriate period of time and then destroyed.
x. Individuals participating in the hearing as a complainant (including a faculty or staff member) and the student-respondent may each be accompanied by an adviser of his or her choosing from the MIIS community. This person may be consulted by the respondent during the hearing, but, unless specifically invited by one of the co-chairs, may not otherwise participate in the proceedings. Prior to the commencement of the hearing, each student shall provide the chair with the names of persons serving as their support person. The names will be shared with the respondent and complainant.
xi. The respondent has the right to be present throughout the hearing and to hear adverse testimony. In no case should the Board consider evidence against a student unless the source, author, and content of any statement or other evidence has been identified to the student, and the student has been given the opportunity to rebut the statement or respond to the evidence.
xii. Immediately after a hearing, the Board will deliberate and make determinations of the facts, based on the preponderance of the evidence under consideration at the hearing. After the facts have been determined, the Board will make a determination on whether or not the respondent is responsible or not responsible for a policy violation.
xiii. After a finding of responsibility, the ADSS may share a written character reference relating to the respondent with the Board, for their consideration in connection with their recommendation for a sanction.
xiv. If a hearing results in a finding of not responsible, there will be no record of the charges or the hearing in the student’s permanent file.
xv. The ADSS will ordinarily give written notification of the determination of the Board, and the sanction assigned to the student charged. Failure to meet this guideline does not invalidate a decision or form a basis for appeal.
When determining a sanction, the nature and severity of the violation and the impact to individuals or community will be considered as well as the disciplinary history of the student. While intent is not a factor in determining responsibility, it can be a factor in determining a sanction. A student’s compliance with the process may also be a factor in determining an appropriate sanction. Finally, balancing consistency by acknowledging precedent and equity by considering the impact of the sanction on the individual is a foundational tenet of sanctioning.
a. Sanctions may only be imposed for the specific charge of which the student has been notified in writing.
b. It is important to note that discipline is cumulative at MIIS, and further infractions, for example, following the successful conclusion of a probationary period, may still result in more severe outcomes.
c. Sanctions are issued by the ADSS and VPAA/DOI for non-academic violations and the Dean of the academic program for academic violations. These officials may also issue restrictions on MIIS privileges, including but not limited to participation in student life activities, clubs, student council or guest privileges, and assign educational sanctions, including but not limited to reparative community service, as appropriate. Receipt of sanctions may also impact future MIIS opportunities, including but not limited to employment, leadership position selection, or approval for participation in other MIIS programs. Students may appeal the issuance of official discipline; they may not appeal unofficial sanctions, such as warnings, reprimands, and probationary status.
d. Plagiarism, cheating, or any other violation of the Academic Honesty Policy is normally punishable by suspension. Students found guilty of academic dishonesty will normally fail the course in which the offense occurred. On rare occasions, if compelling reasons exist for not suspending a student found guilty of academic dishonesty, the sanctioning authority may issue no less than a reprimand and invoke either of the following penalties: a 0 or an F on the piece of work, or a 0 or an F in the course.
e. A sanction of suspension or expulsion is ordinarily stayed pending the outcome of any authorized appeal. However, if the judicial authority which imposed this sanction makes a finding that imminent danger to one or more members of the MIIS community may exist, suspension or expulsion will take effect immediately regardless of the pendency of an appeal. Please also see the section Institute Initiated Leave of Absence, Emergency Withdrawal, Suspension or Expulsion in the Student Conduct Policy Overview.
f. MIIS Sanctions Include (but are not limited to):
i. Unofficial MIIS Discipline: The following sanctions are unofficial MIIS discipline and not part of the student’s permanent record. Students who receive these sanctions can answer negatively if they are asked if they have been subject to official MIIS discipline. A record of the sanction remains in a student’s file until graduation when it is removed. These sanctions are taken into account in determining future disciplinary penalties and may serve to make further violations of MIIS policies more serious.
- Fines or restitution: Fines or restitution are commensurate with the nature of the offense. The monetary cost of the harm done may be taken into account in assessment of a fine or an order of restitution.
- Warnings: A verbal or written warning may be issued when a student has violated MIIS policy. A warning is intended to educate the student about community expectations, MIIS policies and/or state laws, and the need to adhere to them.
- Reprimands: A letter of reprimand may be issued when a student demonstrates an inability or unwillingness to abide by community standards by repeatedly violating MIIS policy. A letter of reprimand may also be issued when a student has committed a violation of MIIS policy that has had or may have had a negative impact on an individual or on the community, or has undermined MIIS’ community expectations. A reprimand registers strongly MIIS’ concern regarding the student’s actions and its firm expectations for immediate improved behavior.
- Probationary Status: Students may be placed on probationary status when the number or nature of their MIIS policy violation(s) is sufficiently concerning that an additional policy violation will most likely result in official MIIS discipline (please see below). Probationary status provides students with an opportunity to avoid this outcome. They may do so by demonstrating improved conduct, generally reflected in their sustained ability to respect community expectations and adhere to MIIS policies. If students commit new policy violations while on probation, an appropriate course of action will be determined. Considerations may include the gravity and impact of the new infraction; the student’s response during and following the new infraction; and the student’s progress during the probationary period.
ii. Official MIIS Discipline: Official MIIS discipline is intended to encourage immediate improved behavior, and acceptance of responsibility and growth by establishing this incident on the student’s permanent record. Students who receive official MIIS discipline must answer affirmatively if they are asked whether they have been subject to discipline.
- Academic Probation: Academic probation is a sanction for academic integrity violations and extends for the rest of the student’s MIIS career. A student found guilty of academic dishonesty while on academic probation will be suspended.
- Letter of Official MIIS Discipline: Students may receive a letter of official MIIS discipline when their actions have demonstrated disregard for MIIS’ community expectations and policies such that an additional infraction of MIIS policy will most likely result in suspension from MIIS.
- Suspension: Suspension is issued when a student commits a serious policy violation, or repeatedly violates MIIS policy, thereby demonstrating an inability or unwillingness to behave in a manner consistent with MIIS’ community expectations. The behavior is sufficiently egregious that the student is required to leave the MIIS community for a period of time. It is intended to encourage acceptance of responsibility and growth by establishing this incident on the student’s permanent record; to provide the student with an opportunity to consider and address the problematic behavior; and to develop strategies to ensure that the student’s eventual return to MIIS will be successful for the student and for the community.
Suspension is ordinarily imposed for a minimum of a semester and a maximum of three semesters. In determining the length of suspension, the VPAA/DOI, ADSS and/or Dean of the program will consider the student’s prior conduct history; the gravity of the violation and its impact on the community; and the need for sufficient time for the student to demonstrate that the concerning behavior has been satisfactorily addressed. When the VPAA/DOI, ADSS and/or Dean of the program feels that suspension for three semesters is insufficient to allow for a student’s successful return to the community, expulsion will be the normal outcome, barring exceptional circumstances.
If a student has been found guilty of academic dishonesty and the suspension does not take effect until the end of the semester, no opportunity may be granted to make up or otherwise fulfill the requirements of the course in question, although the student may complete all other courses in which he or she is concurrently enrolled. In this case, the course grade will be recorded as an F. A student suspended for academic dishonesty normally may not transfer to MIIS course credits earned at other institutions during the period of suspension. However, this part of the sanction may be modified if compelling reasons warrant such action.
Students who are suspended must apply for readmission through the VPAA/DOI, ADSS and Dean of the program, and must demonstrate readiness to return to MIIS. Readiness to return is determined by a student’s adherence to the terms of the sanction and the deadlines of the readmission process; by the completion of any additional conditions that may have been established at the time of the student’s departure; and by the provision of satisfactory evidence that the problematic behavior will not recur. If a student is unable to demonstrate readiness to return at the stated conclusion of the period of suspension, the VPAA/DOI, ADSS and Dean of the program may deny readmission until it is satisfied that the conditions that led to the student’s departure have been appropriately addressed.
Students who are suspended must leave campus; are restricted from all MIIS owned or rented properties; and are prohibited from participating in all MIIS activities or programs, from MIIS employment, and from using MIIS facilities during the stated period of the suspension. When suspension prohibits students from completing a semester they have already begun, the comprehensive fee for that semester is not refunded. For international students, suspension may affect immigration status; related questions may be directed to the Office of International Student and Scholar Services.
- Expulsion: For particularly serious offenses, students may be permanently dismissed from MIIS. In cases of expulsion from MIIS, no refund of the comprehensive fee is made.
a. Appeals are reviewed by MIIS authorities who did not participate in the initial determination and are trained to be impartial and free from a conflict of interest.
b. Appeals are permitted on the following bases only:
i. Discovery of significant new factual evidence not available to the initial decision-maker (does not include omission by the respondent of information or testimony).
ii. A procedural error or violation that prevented fundamental fairness. A determination that a procedural error or violation occurred and prevented fundamental fairness may result in a new determination using the correct procedures but a procedural error is not a factor in reducing a sanction when the appeal upholds the finding of responsibility for violating a policy.
c. Appeal submissions that do not satisfy at least one of these bases will be denied without further process, either by the VPAA/DOI or the ADSS.
d. A sanction of suspension or expulsion is ordinarily stayed pending the outcome of any appeal. However, in circumstances that satisfy the Institute Initiated Leave of Absence, Emergency Withdrawal, Suspension or Expulsion provision in the Student Conduct Policy Overview, suspension or expulsion will take effect immediately regardless of the pendency of an appeal.
e. Appeals from Disposition Without Hearing and Board hearing procedures:
i. If the sanction is a form of official discipline the respondent may appeal the determination of responsibility to the VPAA/DOI by submitting a written appeal within five business days of being notified of the determination and sanction.
ii. Appeals will follow this process:
1. The VPAA/DOI may grant extensions of time for the respondent to appeal, upon request.
2. The VPAA/DOI will provide a copy of the written appeal to the ADSS and the ADSS will provide access to the records of the case to the VPAA/DOI.
3. The VPAA/DOI may consult with the ADSS and any other relevant individual regarding the appeal, as appropriate.
4. The VPAA/DOI will consider whether the appeal demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence one of the bases for further action, and may require re-consideration by the initial decision-maker, re-convening the original Board, convening a new Board, to re-hear the entire matter or only a limited portion, or may require re-deliberation on the sanction.
5. The VPAA/DOI will ordinarily notify the student of his/her decision within seven business days of the receipt of the records of the initial determination, but this time may be extended if compelling circumstances warrant, and variation from this shall not invalidate a decision.
6. If reconsideration of some kind is required, the ADSS will take the appropriate steps to implement the decision of the VPAA/DOI, as necessary.
7. Decisions of the VPAA/DOI, or reconsideration of the initial determination by the Board after a successful appeal are final, and not subject to further appeal, absent extraordinary circumstances.